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Glaucius dohrnii Hook-billed Hermit, Boa Nova, Bahia, Brazil

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Superordo: Caprimulgimorphae
Ordo: Apodiformes

Familia: Trochilidae
Subfamilia: Phaethornithinae
Genus: Glaucis
Species: Glaucis dohrnii
Name

Glaucis dohrnii (Bourcier & Mulsant, 1852)

Type locality: Ecuador, error = restricted to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Synonyms

Trochilus dohrnii (protonym)

References

Bourcier, J. & Mulsant, E. 1852. Descriptions de quelques nouvelles espèces d'oiseaux-mouches. Annales des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, d'Agriculture et d'Industrie. Société impériale d'agriculture, etc. de Lyon. (2 ) 4: 139–144 Gallica Reference page. p. 139

Links

IUCN: Glaucis dohrnii (Vulnerable)

Vernacular names
български: Извитоклюно колибри
Cebuano: Glaucis dohrnii
Cymraeg: Meudwy crymbig
dansk: Krognæbskolibri
Deutsch: Bronzeschwanz-Schattenkolibri
English: Hook-billed Hermit
فارسی: گوشه‌گیر نوک‌چنگکی
suomi: Brasiliankaarikolibri
français: Ermite de Dohrn
magyar: Bahia-remetekolibri
Nederlands: Bronsstaartheremietkolibrie
polski: Pustelnik hakodzioby
português: Balança-rabo-canela
svenska: kroknäbbseremit
Tiếng Việt: Ruồi mỏ quăm

The hook-billed hermit (Glaucis dohrnii) is an threatened species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is endemic to a small area of Brazil.[3][1]

Taxonomy and systematics

The hook-billed hermit was for a time placed in genus Ramphodon, but morphological characteristics place it firmly in Glaucis. It is monotypic.[4][5][3]
Description

The hook-billed hermit is 12 to 13 cm (4.7 to 5.1 in) long. Males weigh 6 to 9 g (0.21 to 0.32 oz) and females 5.5 to 7 g (0.19 to 0.25 oz). Its upperparts are greenish bronze and the underparts cinnamon. The face has a white supercilium and "moustache" and is otherwise dusky. The tail is metallic bronze with white-tipped outer feathers. Its bill is nearly straight. The sexes have essentially the same plumage though the female's underparts are somewhat paler than the male's.[5]
Distribution and habitat

The hook-billed hermit is found only at a few sites in the southeastern Brazilian states of Bahia and Espírito Santo. It probably formerly occurred in Minas Gerais and possibly Rio de Janeiro states, though in the latter it is known only from trade skins that might have originated elsewhere. It inhabits the understory of inland primary and littoral forests, usually along streams. It favors areas with abundant Heliconia plants. In elevation it ranges from sea level to 500 m (1,600 ft).[5]
Behavior
Movement

The hook-billed hermit is thought to be sedentary. However, the few records from any one site make that determination difficult.[5]
Feeding

Like other hermit hummingbirds, the hook-billed hermit is a "trap-line" feeder, visiting a circuit of flowering plants. It feeds on nectar at Heliconia and other plants and also on small arthropods, but details are lacking.[5]
Breeding

The hook-billed hermit's breeding season is believed to span from September to February. The nest is made from plant material and cobwebs under the tip of a long drooping leaf. Its clutch is two eggs.[5]

Dickcissel male perched on a metal pole singing, with neck stretched and beak open.

Songs and calls
Listen to hook-billed hermit on xeno-canto
Vocalization

The hook-billed hermit's song is described as similar to those of the rufous-breasted hermit (G. hirsutus), a "rapid 'seep-seep-seep'", and the saw-billed hermit (Ramphodon naevius), "a descending series...of 'seee' notes."[5][6][7]
Status

The IUCN originally assessed the hook-billed hermit in 1988 as Threatened, then in 1994 as Critically Endangered, then in 2000 as Endangered, and in 2021 as Vulnerable. Its small range has undergone massive deforestation and what remains is fragmented. Its population is estimated at under 10,000 mature individuals and is believed to be decreasing.[1] It may now only occur only in a few reserves and national parks in Bahia and one in Espírito Santo.[5]
References

BirdLife International (2021). "Hook-billed Hermit Glaucis dohrnii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T22687026A137470206. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-3.RLTS.T22687026A137470206.en. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
"Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
Gill, F.; Donsker, D.; Rasmussen, P. (July 2021). "IOC World Bird List (v 11.2)". Retrieved July 14, 2021.
Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 24 August 2021. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. https://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm retrieved August 24, 2021
Hinkelmann, C. and G. M. Kirwan (2020). Hook-billed Hermit (Glaucis dohrnii), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.hobher2.01 retrieved November 14, 2021
van Perlo, Ber (2009). A Field Guide to the Birds of Brazil. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-19-530155-7.
Hinkelmann, C. and G. M. Kirwan (2020). Saw-billed Hermit (Ramphodon naevius), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173 retrieved November 13, 2021

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