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Phylloscopus trochilus

Phylloscopus trochilus (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Parvordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Sylvioidea
Familia: Sylviidae
Genus: Phylloscopus
Species: Phylloscopus trochilus
Subspecies: P. t. acredula - P. t. trochilus - P. t. yakutensis

Name

Phylloscopus trochilus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Ελληνικά : Θαμνοφυλλοσκόπος
English: Willow Warbler

Reference

Systema Naturae ed.10 p.188

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The Willow Warbler (formerly called the Willow Wren,[1]) Phylloscopus trochilus, is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia.[2]

It was described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758 under the genus Motacilla.[3]

This "warbler" is strongly migratory and the majority of the population winters in sub-Saharan Africa. It is one of the first leaf warblers to return in the spring but is later than the Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita.[2]

This is a bird of open woodlands with trees and ground cover for nesting, including birch and willow uplands. The nest is usually built in close contact with the ground, often in low vegetation. Like most Old World warblers, this small passerine is insectivorous.[2]

Description

This is a typical leaf warbler in appearance, greenish brown above and off-white below. It is very similar to the Chiffchaff, but non-singing birds can be distinguished from that species by their paler legs, longer paler bill, more elegant shape and longer primary projection. Its song is a simple repetitive descending whistle.[2]

Behaviour

* mid-September to mid-April: lives in sub Saharan Africa
* mid April to Mid May: migrates and arrives in countries such as the United Kingdom
* mid May to August: breeding season, one brood only
* August to mid September: flies back to Saharan Africa

Research indicates that Willow Warblers prefer young, open, scrubby woodland; small trees including coppice. High amounts of Birch, lichen, water features eg streams, fields with large amounts of bracken and mosses, and patches of low bramble (for nest cover) are also required.[4] They use coppice up to 10 years old, preferring Birch and damper soils. Incorporating woodland ride edge thickets is beneficial, as is 15 metre woodland edges of varying structure and height. They prefer damp woodland areas. Thicket forming shrubs like blackthorn provide pockets of habitat. Deer browsing can degrade the required low cover.

Status and conservation

In England this species has on average decreased in population by 70% within the last 25 years. The biggest declines have occurred in the South East, whilst in Scotland some increases have occurred.

The Forestry Commission offers grants under a scheme called England's Woodland Improvement Grant (EWIG); as does Natural Englands Environmental Stewardship Scheme.[5]

References

1. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Phylloscopus trochilus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
2. ^ a b c d Baker, Kevin (1997). Warblers of Europe, Asia and North Africa (Helm Identification Guides). p. 256–259. ISBN 0713639717.
3. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).. pp. 188.
4. ^ RSPB Woodland Management For Birds – Willow Warbler
5. ^ RSPB Woodland Management For Birds – Willow Warbler

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