- Art Gallery -

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Tyranni
Infraordo: Tyrannides
Parvordo: Furnariida
Superfamilia: Formicaroidea

Familia: Rhinocryptidae
Subfamiliae: Rhinocryptinae - Scytalopodinae
Genera: Acropternis - EleoscytalopusEugralla - Liosceles - Merulaxis - Myornis - Psilorhamphus - Pteroptochos - Rhinocrypta - Scelorchilus - Scytalopus - Teledromas

Name

Rhinocryptidae Wetmore, 1930 (1837)
References

Maurício, G.N., Mata, H., Bornschein, M.R., Cadena, C.D., Alvarenga, H. & Bonatto, S.L. 2008. Hidden generic diversity in Neotropical birds: Molecular and anatomical data support a new genus for the “Scytalopus” indigoticus species-group (Aves: Rhinocryptidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49(1): 125–135. DOI: doi 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.06.017. Full article view Reference page.
Ericson, P.G.P., S. L. Olson; M. Irestedt; H. Alvarenga & J. Fjeldså. 2010. Circumscription of a monophyletic family for the tapaculos (Aves: Rhinocryptidae): Psiloramphus in and Melanopareia out. Journal of Ornithology 151 (2): 337–345. Full article (PDF) DOI: 10.1007/s10336-009-0460-9 Reference page.
Ohlson, J.I., Irestedt, M., Ericson, P.G.P. & Fjeldså, J. 2013. Phylogeny and classification of the New World suboscines (Aves, Passeriformes). Zootaxa 3613: 1–35. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3613.1.1 Full article (PDF). Reference page.

Vernacular names
日本語: オタテドリ科
slovenščina: Skrivači
中文: 鼠鸟科

The tapaculos (pronounced /tæpəˈku:ləʊ/) are a family, Rhinocryptidae, of small suboscine passerine birds, found mainly in South America and with the highest diversity in the Andean regions. Three species (Chocó, Tacarcuna, and the silvery-fronted) are found in southern Central America.

Description

Tapaculos are small to medium-sized birds, with a total length ranging from 10–24 cm (4–9½ in). These are terrestrial species that fly only poorly on their short wings. They have strong legs, well-suited to their habitat of grassland or forest undergrowth. The tail is cocked and pointed towards the head, and the name tapaculo probably derives from Spanish for loincloth (literally "cover your behind" --because it ought to). Another possible explanation is that it originates from the Chilean name for the white-throated tapaculo, simply tapaculo, which is an onomatopoeic reference to its commonly heard song.

While the majority of the family are small blackish or brown birds there are some larger and more colourful species. All tapaculos are skulking birds that frequently stay low in dense vegetation, even the larger, colorful species, and this renders them difficult to see. They are best located and – in the case of Scytalopus spp. – identified by their vocalisations.

They feed on insects, seeds and other soft plant material with their pointed bills, and will scratch on the ground like a pheasant.

Most species lay two or three white eggs in a covered location, whether it be a burrow, a hole in a tree, or a domed nest.
Status and conservation

Some species have highly localized distributions and, being poor fliers, they easily become isolated in small populations. BirdLife International currently (2007) consider one species vulnerable (Scytalopus panamensis), three species endangered (S. iraiensis, S. rodriguezi and S. robbinsi), and two species critically endangered (Eleoscytalopus psychopompus and Merulaxis stresemanni). The two critically endangered species are restricted to Atlantic forest of eastern Brazil, and were only recently rediscovered after several years without any records.
Systematics

The tapaculos were traditionally placed in a distinct family Rhinocryptidae; more recent research (Irestedt et al. 2002, Rice 2005a,b) indicates that according to analysis of mt and nDNA sequence data, the tapaculos might be better merged into the Formicariidae as tribe Rhinocryptini, as they are closer to the antthrushes than either is to the true antpittas.

Alternatively, the latter might be raised to family status. In this case, it would be possible to maintain the tapaculos as a separate family too, but it would seem altogether more warranted to consider them a subfamily of the Formicariinae sensu stricto, which would be called Rhinocryptinae.

Whether this latter approach, the placement as a tribe in a tapaculo-antthrush Formicariinae subfamily, or maintenance as a separate family is to be preferred depends on whether the true antpittas are closer to the tapaculos and true antbirds, or rather to the Pittasoma "gnatthrushes" and other gnateaters and the true antbirds. There are some, albeit very tentative, indications that the latter may indeed be the case, which would be reflected in the placement of the tapaculos as subfamily Rhinocryptinae, with the Formicariinae being restricted to the true antthrushes (Rice 2005a). Today, the tapaculos continue in the Rhinocryptidae until the systematics can be further defined.

Apparently not all tapaculo genera would have to be moved to the formicariids (Irestedt et al. 2002). As the type genus Rhinocrypta certainly would, any distinct genera (such as the peculiar crescent-chests) would need a new family name.

An alternative family name Pteroptochidae, has been used historically.[1]

Rhinocryptidae

Liosceles

Psilorhamphus

Teledromas

Rhinocrypta

Acropternis

Pteroptochos

Scelorchilus

Eleoscytalopus

Merulaxis

Myornis

Eugralla

Scytalopus

Liosceles

Psilorhamphus

Teledromas

Rhinocrypta

Acropternis

Pteroptochos

Scelorchilus

Eleoscytalopus

Merulaxis

Myornis

Eugralla

Scytalopus



Cladogram based on Ericson, P.G.P. et al. (2010).[2]
Taxonomy of Scytalopus

The species-limits within the genus Scytalopus is among the most complex matters in Neotropical ornithology. They are highly cryptic, and identification using visual features often is impossible. Vocal and biochemical data is typically needed to clarify the taxonomic status of the various populations. Several new species have been described in recent years (e.g. S. whitneyi and S. frankeae from Peru). The Brazilian taxa are similarly complex with several recently described species and considerable confusion surrounding the use of the scientific name Scytalopus speluncae.

Additionally, still undescribed species are known to exist, while some species as currently defined actually may include several species (e.g. the southern population of the large-footed tapaculo may represent a yet undescribed species). The confusing situation is perhaps best illustrated by the fact that only ten species were recognized in this genus in 1970 (Krabbe & Schulenberg, 2003), while the figure now is more than four times as high.
Species list

For a complete list of the tapaculos recognized by the International Ornithological Congress, see the article "List of tapaculo species".

Genera allied with antthrushes

Genus Pteroptochos, the huet-huets
Black-throated huet-huet, Pteroptochos tarnii
Chestnut-throated huet-huet, Pteroptochos castaneus
Moustached turca, Pteroptochos megapodius
Genus Scytalopus (some 40-45 species)
Genus Scelorchilus[3]
White-throated tapaculo, Scelorchilus albicollis
Chucao tapaculo, Scelorchilus rubecula
Genus Rhinocrypta
Crested gallito, Rhinocrypta lanceolata
Genus Liosceles
Rusty-belted tapaculo, Liosceles thoracicus

Placement unresolved

Genus Psilorhamphus
Spotted bamboowren, Psilorhamphus guttatus
Genus Merulaxis, the bristlefronts
Slaty bristlefront, Merulaxis ater
Stresemann's bristlefront, Merulaxis stresemanni
Genus Eleoscytalopus (formerly in Scytalopus)
White-breasted tapaculo, Eleoscytalopus indigoticus
Bahia tapaculo, Eleoscytalopus psychopompus
Genus Eugralla
Ochre-flanked tapaculo, Eugralla paradoxa
Genus Myornis
Ash-colored tapaculo, Myornis senilis
Genus Acropternis
Ocellated tapaculo, Acropternis orthonyx

References

Correa, Alejandro, Mpodozis, Jorge & Sallaberry, Michel. (2014): Chilean Rhinocryptidae (Avian):speciation. Impressum/Imprint OmniScriptum GmbH & CoKG. Verlag/publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. Printed in Germany. All right reserved Saarbrücken. ISBN 978-3-659-55015-7.
Correa, Alejandro (2009): Biological similarities between Chilean Tapaculos. Impressum/Imprint (nur für Deutschland/only for Germany) Publisher VDM Verlag.Printed in the USA. Printed in the UK. All right reserved Saarbrücken. ISBN 978-3-639-18137-1.
Irestedt, Martin; Fjeldså, Jon; Johansson, Ulf S. & Ericson, Per G.P. (2002): Systematic relationships and biogeography of the tracheophone suboscines (Aves: Passeriformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23(3): 499–512. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00034-9 (HTML abstract)
Krabbe, N, and Schulenberg, T. (2003). Family Rhinocryptidae (Tapaculos). pp. 748–787 in: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Christie, D. eds. (2003). Handbook of Birds of the World. Vol. 8. Broadbills to Tapaculos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-50-4
Maurício, G, (2005). Taxonomy of the southern population in the Scytalopus speluncae group, with the description of a new species and remarks on the systematics and biogeography of the complex (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae). Ararajuba. 13(1): 7-28.
Raposo, M., Stopiglia, R., Loskit, V., and Kirwin, G. (2006). The correct use of the name Scytalopus speluncae (Ménétriés, 1835), and the description of a new species of Brazilian tapaculo (Aves: Passeriformers: Rhinocryptidae). Zootaxa 1271: 37–56.
Rice, Nathan H. (2005a): Phylogenetic relationships of antpitta genera (Passeriformes: Formicariidae). Auk 122(2): 673–683. [English with Spanish abstract] DOI:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0673:PROAGP]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
Rice, Nathan H. (2005b): Further Evidence for Paraphyly of the Formicariidae (Passeriformes). Condor 107(4): 910–915. [English with Spanish abstract] doi:10.1650/7696.1 PDF fulltext
Status of the members of Rhinocryptidae BirdLife International (2007).
Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos: List of Birds in Brazil

Footnotes

HBW vol 8, page 748
Ericson, P.G.P et al. (2010) Circumscription of a monophyletic family for the tapaculos (Aves: Rhinocryptidae): Psiloramphus in and Melanopareia out. J Ornithol, 151:337–345. DOI 10.1007/s10336-009-0460-9
Placement here needs confirmation.

Birds Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World