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Semnornis

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Piciformes
Familia: Ramphastidae
Subfamilia: Capitoninae
Genus: Semnornis
Species: S. frantzii - S. ramphastinus

Name

Semnornis Richmond, 1900

Reference

* Richmond, 1900. The Auk 17 p.179

The toucan-barbets are the small bird genus Semnornis. This was often included in the paraphyletic barbets but recently usually considered a distinct family Semnornithidae; alternatively, all barbets might be moved to the toucan family Ramphastidae as a subfamily, Semnornithinae. It contains only two species.


Distribution and habitat

The Semnornis toucan-barbets are found in the Neotropics. The Prong-billed Barbet is restricted to the humid highland forests of Costa Rica and Panama. The Toucan-barbet is found in similar habitats in the western montane forests of Ecuador and Colombia. In addition to primary forest they may occupy forest edges and secondary growth. Neither species is migratory, and young birds do not appear to disperse very far after fledging; young Toucan-barbets only disperse 0.5 km.[3]

Description

The Semnornis barbets are fairly large barbets, measuring between 18-21 cm. The Toucan-barbet is larger than the Prong-billed Barbet and considerably heavier.[3] The possess large, swollen bills and lack strong sexual dimorphism in their plumage.[4] The plumage of the Prong-billed Barbet is orang-brown, and that of the Toucan-barbet is more distinctively patterned with black, red, grey and gold.[3]

Behaviour

The Semnornithidae are highly social, and may bee seen either in small groups of up to five or six individuals, or as singles.[3] They are active during the day and are early risers. The Prong-billed Barbet sleeps in communal roosts at night in the non-breeding season. As many as 19 birds may roost together in a hole, either a modified nest or the abandoned nest of a woodpecker. During the breeding season pairs roost in their own nests.[5]

Diet and feeding
Prong-billed Barbet

The diet of these two species are made up of fruits and insects. The ratio of the two is more similar to the toucans than other barbets and is predominated by fruits. A 1993 of the stomach contents of these two species found that in all the stomachs checked only fruit was found.[6] Fruits may be eaten whole, held in the foot and broken and eaten, or crushed and only the juices eaten. Insects are more common in the diet of nestlings, and compose 40% of the food brought to the nest in Toucan-barbets. Toucan-barbets may also feed their chicks small numbers of vertebrates.[3]They have also been recorded eating flowers.[5]

Breeding

Both species of toucan-barbet are monogamous breeders. The Prong-billed Barbets defend breeding territories from all others of their species.[5] Toucan-barbets, on the other hand, are have territories but are helped in raising the young by helpers.[7]

Species

* Prong-billed Barbet, Semnornis frantzii
* Toucan Barbet, Semnornis ramphastinus


References

1. ^ Richmond, Chas (1899). "New Name for the Genus Tetragonops". Auk 16 (1): 77. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v016n01/p0077-p0077.pdf.
2. ^ Richmond, Charles W. (1900). "Some Necessary Changes in Nomenclature". Auk 17 (2): 178–179.
3. ^ a b c d e Horne, J; Short, L (2002). "Family Capitonidae (Barbets)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 7, Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 218–219. ISBN 978-84-87334-37-5.
4. ^ Ripley, S, Dillon (1945). "The Barbets". The Auk 62 (4): 542–563.
5. ^ a b c Skutch, Alexander (1944). "The Life-History of the Prong-Billed Barbet". Auk 61 (1): 61–88.
6. ^ Remsen, Jr., J.V.; Hyde, Mary Ann and Angela Chapman (1993). "The Diets of Neotropical Trogons, Motmots, Barbets and Toucans". The Condor 95 (1): 178–192. doi:10.2307/1369399. http://jstor.org/stable/1369399.
7. ^ Restrepo, Carla; Monddragon, Marta (1998). "Cooperative Breeding in the Frugivorous Toucan barbet (Semnornis ramphastinus)". The Auk 115 (1): 4–15. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v115n01/p0004-p0015.pdf.

* Edinburgh new philosophical journal, (New series) 2 no.2 p.404

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