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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Subordo: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Spindalidae
Genus: Spindalis
Species: S. dominicensis – S. nigricephala – S. portoricensis – S. zena

Spindalis Jardine & Selby, 1837

Typus: Tanagra nigricephala Jameson, 1835 = Spindalis nigricephala

Primary references

Jardine, W. & Selby, P.J. 1837–1843. Illustrations of Ornithology. 4: 53 pl., text. Edinburgh. W.H. Lizars. Google Books Reference page. Original description no.2 pl. 9

Additional references

Garrido, O.H., Parkes, K.C., Reynard, G.B., Kirkconnell, A. & Sutton, R. 1997. Taxonomy of the Stripe-Headed Tanager, Genus Spindalis (Aves:Thraupidae) of the West Indies. The Wilson Bulletin 109(4): 561–594 Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Barker, F. K., Burns, K. J., Klicka, J., Lanyon, S. M., & Lovette, I. J. 2013. Going to extremes: Contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds. Systematic Biology 62 (2): 298–320. DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/sys094 Full article (PDF)Reference page.
Barker, F.K., Burns, K.J., Klicka, J., Lanyon, S.M. & Lovette, I.J. 2015. New insights into New World biogeography: An integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and allies. The Auk 132(2): 333-348. DOI: 10.1642/AUK-14-110.1 Open accessReference page.

Spindalis is a genus consisting of four non-migratory species of bird. It is the only genus in the family Spindalidae. The species are mostly endemic to the West Indies; exceptions include populations of western spindalises on Cozumel Island, off the Yucatán Peninsula's east coast, and in extreme southeastern Florida. The species were traditionally considered aberrant members of the tanager family Thraupidae. Taxonomic studies recover them as a sister group to the Puerto Rican tanager (family Nesospingidae), and some group Spindalidae and Nesospingidae within the Phaenicophilidae.[2]

Males are characterized by bright plumage while females are duller and have a different coloration. The nests are cup-shaped.[3]


The genus contains four species:[4]
Male Female Common Name Scientific name Distribution
Hispaniolan spindalis Spindalis dominicensis Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic)
Jamaican Spindalis (Spindalis nigricephala) (8082131069).jpg Jamaican Spindalis RWD2.jpg Jamaican spindalis Spindalis nigricephala Jamaica
Spindalis portoricensis by Mike's Birds.jpg Puerto Rican Stripe-headed Tanager (female) (5403225013).jpg Puerto Rican spindalis Spindalis portoricensis Puerto Rico
Spindalis zena -Ciego de Avila Province, Cuba-8 (cropped).jpg Western spindalis (Spindalis zena pretrei) female.JPG Western spindalis Spindalis zena southeastern Florida and the western Caribbean (Cozumel, the Cayman Islands, Cuba, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands)

Historically, the genus consisted of a single polytypic species, Spindalis zena (with the common name of stripe-headed tanager), with eight recognized subspecies—S. z. townsendi and S. z. zena from the Bahamas, S. z. pretrei from Cuba, S. z. salvini from Grand Cayman, S. z. dominicensis from Hispaniola and Gonâve Island, S. z. portoricensis from Puerto Rico, S. z. nigreciphala from Jamaica, and S. z. benedicti from Cozumel Island. In 1997, based primarily on morphological and vocalization differences, three of the subspecies (portoricensis, dominicensis and nigricephala) were elevated to species status. S. zena remained a polytypic species with five recognized subspecies—S. z. pretrei, S. z. salvini, S. z. benedicti, S. z. townsendi, and S. z. zena.[5]

Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2013). "Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of New World passerine birds". Systematic Biology. 62 (2): 298–320. doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys094. PMID 23229025.
Oliveros, C.H.; et al. (2019). "Earth history and the passerine superradiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States. 116 (16): 7916–7925. doi:10.1073/pnas.1813206116. PMC 6475423. PMID 30936315.
Garrido et al. 1997, p. 587.
Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Enigmatic Oscines". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 18 October 2020.

Garrido et al. 1997, pp. 588–589.


Garrido, O.H.; Parkes, K.C.; Reynard, G.B.; Kirkconnell, A.; Sutton, R. (1997). "Taxonomy of the stripe-headed tanager, genus Spindalis (Aves:Thraupidae) of the West Indies". The Wilson Bulletin. 109 (4): 561–594.

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