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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Cladus: Telluraves
Cladus: Australaves
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Passeri
Infraordo: Passerida
Superfamilia: Passeroidea

Familia: Thraupidae
Genus: Sporophila
Species: S. albogularis – S. americana – S. angolensis – S. ardesiaca – S. atrirostris – S. beltoni – S. bouvreuil – S. bouvronides – S. caerulescens – S. castaneiventris – S. cinnamomea – S. collaris – S. corvina – S. crassirostris – S. falcirostris – S. fringilloides – S. frontalis – S. funerea – S. hypochroma – S. hypoxantha – S. intermedia – S. leucoptera – S. lineola – S. luctuosa – S. maximiliani – S. melanogaster – S. minuta – S. morelleti – S. murallae – S. nigricollis – S. nigrorufa – S. nuttingi – S. palustris – S. peruviana – S. pileata – S. plumbea – S. ruficollis – S. schistacea – S. simplex – S. telasco – S. torqueola

Dubious taxa: S. insulata – S. melanops – S. zelichi


Sporophila Cabanis, 1844

Typus: Pyrrhula falcirostris Temminck, 1820 = Sporophila falcirostris


Spermophila Swainson, 1827 Zool.J. p. 348 BHL
Callyrhynchus Lesson, 1842 Rev.Zool. p. 209 BHL
Oryzoborus Cabanis, 1851 Mus.Hein. p. 151 BHL
Neorhynchus P.L. Sclater, 1869 PZS p. 147 BHL
Dolospingus Elliot, 1871 Ibis p. 402 BHL
Drepanorhynchus Dubois, 1894 Mem.Soc.Zool.France p. 400 BHL

Primary references

Cabanis, J. 1844. [New genera] In: Tschudi, J.J. von. Avium conspectus quae in Republica Peruana reperiuntur et pleraeque observatae vel collectae sunt in itinere. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 10 pt1: 262-317. Nicholai'schen Buchhandlung. Berlin. BHL Reference page. Original description p. 291 BHL


Mason, N.A. & Burns, K.J. 2013. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical seedeaters and seed-finches (Sporophila, Oryzoborus, Dolospingus). Ornitología Neotropical 24: 139–155 Full article (PDF) Reference page.
Mason, N.A., Olvera-Vital, A., Lovette, I.J. & Navarro‐Sigüenza, A.G. 2018. Hidden endemism, deep polyphyly, and repeated dispersal across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec: Diversification of the White‐collared Seedeater complex (Thraupidae: Sporophila torqueola). Ecology and Evolution. 8(3): 1867–1881. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3799 Full article (PDF)Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Seedeaters
español: Espigueros; semilleros; capuchinos
português: Papa-capins; caboclinhos

Sporophila is a genus of Neotropical birds in the tanager family Thraupidae. The genus now includes the six seed finches that were previously placed in the genus Oryzoborus.

They are relatively small with stubby, conical bills adapted for feeding on seeds and alike. Most species are strongly sexually dimorphic, and while "typical" adult males often are distinctive, female and immatures of both sexes can be very difficult (in some species virtually impossible) to identify to exact species.[1] Females of at least some of these species have different ultraviolet colours, which can be seen by birds, but not humans.[2] Female-like (paedomorphic) males apparently also occur, at least in some species.[3]
Taxonomy and species list

The genus Spermophila was introduced by the English naturalist William John Swainson in 1827.[4] The type species was subsequently designated as Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) by George Robert Gray in 1841.[5] As the genus name Spermophila had been introduced by John Richardson in 1825 for a genus of mammals,[6] the German ornithologist Jean Cabanis coined the present name Sporophila as a replacement in 1844.[7][8] The name combines the Ancient Greek sporos meaning "seed" and philos meaning "-loving".[9]

The genus now includes the six seed finches that were previously placed in Oryzoborus as well as the thick-billed seed finch that was the only species in Dolospingus. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2014 found that these seven species were embedded in Sporophila.[10]

The genus contains 41 species:[11]

Lesson's seedeater, Sporophila bouvronides
Lined seedeater, Sporophila lineola
Cinnamon-rumped seedeater, Sporophila torqueola
Morelet’s seedeater, Sporophila morelleti
Variable seedeater, Sporophila corvina
Grey seedeater, Sporophila intermedia (known as the Picoplat in Trinidad and Tobago)
Wing-barred seedeater, Sporophila americana
White-naped seedeater, Sporophila fringilloides – (formerly in Dolospingus)
Caquetá seedeater, Sporophila murallae
Black-and-white seedeater, Sporophila luctuosa
Double-collared seedeater, Sporophila caerulescens
Yellow-bellied seedeater, Sporophila nigricollis
Dubois's seedeater, Sporophila ardesiaca
Thick-billed seed finch, Sporophila funerea – (formerly in Oryzoborus)
Chestnut-bellied seed finch, Sporophila angolensis – (formerly in Oryzoborus)
Nicaraguan seed finch, Sporophila nuttingi – (formerly in Oryzoborus)
Great-billed seed finch, Sporophila maximiliani – (formerly in Oryzoborus)
Large-billed seed finch, Sporophila crassirostris – (formerly in Oryzoborus)
Black-billed seed finch, Sporophila atrirostris – (formerly in Oryzoborus)
Slate-coloured seedeater, Sporophila schistacea
Temminck's seedeater, Sporophila falcirostris
Buffy-fronted seedeater, Sporophila frontalis
Plumbeous seedeater, Sporophila plumbea
Tropeiro seedeater, Sporophila beltoni
Rusty-collared seedeater, Sporophila collaris
White-throated seedeater, Sporophila albogularis
White-bellied seedeater, Sporophila leucoptera
Parrot-billed seedeater, Sporophila peruviana
Chestnut-throated seedeater, Sporophila telasco
Drab seedeater, Sporophila simplex
Chestnut-bellied seedeater, Sporophila castaneiventris
Ruddy-breasted seedeater, Sporophila minuta
Copper seedeater, Sporophila bouvreuil
Black-and-tawny seedeater, Sporophila nigrorufa
Tawny-bellied seedeater, Sporophila hypoxantha
Dark-throated seedeater, Sporophila ruficollis
Pearly-bellied seedeater, Sporophila pileata
Rufous-rumped seedeater, Sporophila hypochroma
Chestnut seedeater, Sporophila cinnamomea
Marsh seedeater, Sporophila palustris
Black-bellied seedeater, Sporophila melanogaster

Described in 2016 and not yet generally recognised:

Ibera seedeater, Sporophila iberaensis

Possible extinct species:

Hooded seedeater, Sporophila melanops – possibly extinct (20th century?), a hybrid or a color morph of S. nigricollis


Ridgely, R. S., & G. Tudor (1989). The Birds of South America. Vol. 1. Univ. Texas Press, Austin
Benites, P., Eaton, M. D., Lijtmaer, D. A., Lougheed, S. C. & Tubaro, P. L. (2010). Analysis from avian visual perspective reveals plumage colour differences among females of capuchino seedeaters (Sporophila). J. Avian Biology. 41: 597–602.
Areta, J. I. (2009). Paedomorphosis in Sporophila seedeaters. Bull. B.O.C. 2009 129(2): 98-103.
Swainson, William John (1827). "On several groups and forms in ornithology, not hitherto defined". Zoological Journal. 3: 158–175, 343–363 [348].
Gray (1841). A List of the Genera of Birds : with their Synonyma and an Indication of the Typical Species of Each Genus (2nd ed.). London: R. and J.E. Taylor. p. 63.
Richardson, John (1825). Appendix to Captain Parry's journal of a second voyage for the discovery of a North West passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific performed in His Majesty's ships Fury and Hecla, in the years 1821-22-23. London: J. Murray. p. 313.
Cabanis, Jean (1844). "Avium conspectus quae in Republica Peruana reperiuntur et pleraeqiio observatae vel collectae sunt in itinere a Dr. J.J. de Tschudi". Archiv für Naturgeschichte (in Latin). 10: 262–317 [291].
Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, ed. (1970). Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. 13. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 133.
Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 363. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
Burns, K.J.; Shultz, A.J.; Title, P.O.; Mason, N.A.; Barker, F.K.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2014). "Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 41–77. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006.

Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2019). "New World warblers, mitrospingid tanagers". IOC World Bird List Version 9.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 4 October 2019.

Lijtmaer, D. A., N. M. Sharpe, P. L. Tubaro & S. C. Lougheed. 2004. Molecular phylogenetics and diversification of the genus Sporophila (Aves: Passeriformes). Mol. Philo. Evol. 33:562-579.
Robbins, M. B., M. J. Braun, C. J. Huddleston, D. W. Finch, & C. M. Milensky (2005). First Guyana records, natural history, and systematics of the White-winged Seedeater (Dolospingus fringilloides). Ibis 147:334-341.

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