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Tanygnathus gramineus

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittacidae
Subfamilia: Psittacinae
Tribus: Psittaculini
Genus: Tanygnathus
Species: Tanygnathus gramineus


Tanygnathus gramineus (Gmelin, 1788)


* Syst.Nat. 1 pt1 p.338

The Black-lored Parrot (Tanygnathus gramineus) also known as the Buru Green Parrot, is a parrot Endemic to the Indonesian island of Buru. It is a 40 cm (16 in) long green parrot with black lores, and a turquoise crown. Males have red beaks, and females are gray-brown. The singing is high pitched and more protracted as compared to similar species, such as Great-billed Parrot.[1]

The bird is rare and either fully or partly nocturnal, and therefore is poorly described. It was first reported in the scientific literature by the Dutch ornithologist Hendrik Cornelis Siebers (1890–1949) in 1930. The bird predominantly occupies the central, more elevated part of the island, where it was reported at the settlements of Gunung Tagalago, Wa Temun and Kunturun at elevations of 700–1100 meters (2,300–3,000 ft), as well on the southern lowlands at Fakal, Ehu and Leksula. There was one observation of these parrots near the Kayeli Bay at the eastern shores of Buru. More recent observations were made off the northern (Waflia) and northwestern (Wamlana) shores. The voice of the Black-lored Parrot was frequently heard at Kunturun, mostly 1–7 hours after the sunset, where the locals called the bird "kakatua ol’biru", meaning blue-headed parrot. However, it was caught during the day with slingshots in fruit trees suggesting that its activity is not purely nocturnal. Migration is relatively weak and there are only few reports of the parrots flying up and down hill at high altitudes overnight, as judged from their voices.[2][3]

The population density of Black-lored Parrot is estimated as 1.3–19 birds/km².[3] These birds apparently favor high-altitude forests which on Buru have areas of 1,789 km² above 900 m, and 872 km² above 1,200 m. Those forests are relatively untouched by logging which affects coastal areas. Hunting or capturing of these birds by locals is rather limited, and there is only one report of the locals selling a captured black-lored parrot at a market of the nearby Ambon Island in 1998.[2]

Nevertheless, owing to the small habitat, the species were listed as vulnerable since 1994 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.[3] The establishment of two protected areas on Buru, Gunung Kapalat Mada (1,380 km²) and Waeapo (50 km²), partly aim at preserving the habitat of the Black-lored Parrot.[4]


1. ^ Tanygnathus gramineus
2. ^ a b Black-lored Parrot, Hokkaido Institute of Environmental Sciences and Japan Science and Technology Agency
3. ^ a b c Tanygnathus gramineus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4
4. ^ "Buru rain forests". World Wildlife Fund. 2001. http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/aa/aa0104_full.html.

Further reading

* Juniper & Parr (1998) Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World; ISBN 0-300-07453-0.

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License