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Beija-flor de costas violetas (Thalurania watertonii) RPPN Frei Caneca, Jaqueira, PE

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Cladus: Avemetatarsalia
Cladus: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauriformes
Cladus: Dracohors
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Eusaurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Cladus: Averostra
Cladus: Tetanurae
Cladus: Avetheropoda
Cladus: Coelurosauria
Cladus: Tyrannoraptora
Cladus: Maniraptoromorpha
Cladus: Maniraptoriformes
Cladus: Maniraptora
Cladus: Pennaraptora
Cladus: Paraves
Cladus: Eumaniraptora
Cladus: Avialae
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Cladus: Neoaves
Superordo: Caprimulgimorphae
Ordo: Apodiformes

Familia: Trochilidae
Subfamilia: Trochilinae
Genus: Thalurania
Species: Thalurania watertonii
Name

Thalurania watertonii (Bourcier, 1847)

Original combination: Trochilus Watertonii

References

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1847 (15) p.44 BHL
IUCN: Thalurania watertonii (Endangered)

Vernacular names
català: Colibrí nimfa cuallarg
Cymraeg: Nymff goed gynffonhir
Deutsch: Langschwanznymphe
English: Long-tailed Woodnymph
español: zafiro colilargo
فارسی: چوب‌پری دم‌دراز
français: Dryade de Waterton
magyar: Hosszúfarkú erdeinimfa
Nederlands: Langstaartbosnimf
português: Beija-flor-das-costas-violetas
svenska: långstjärtad skogsnymf

The long-tailed woodnymph (Thalurania watertonii) is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in humid forest in northeastern Brazil, where it is known from the states of Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and the northernmost Bahia.[3] It is usually thought to be widespread, but seen at low density in its increasingly fragmented range.[3] Its population is estimated to be around 1,000–2,500 individuals, currently in decline due to deforestation and habitat loss.[4]

Description

The long-tailed woodnymph is sexually dimorphic. The males are heavier, with significantly larger wings and tails, whereas the females have longer bills.[5] Males are approximately 11.8–13 centimetres (4.6–5.1 in) long, including a tail of 6 centimetres (2.4 in) cm; while females measure roughly 10–11 centimetres (3.9–4.3 in) in length, with a tail of 3.6 centimetres (1.4 in). Individuals have a weight of 3.7–5.2 g.[3]

Males have a conspicuous iridescent plumage in blue, green and purple. The crown and neck are bronze-green,[6] back is iridescent violet-blue, shining grass-green undersides and violet-blue flanks; Its long, deeply-forked tail is blue.[3] Female plumage is much more faint, allowing them to stay unnoticeable as they build nests and care for their young,[4] and a shorter, slightly forked white-tipped tail with a blue subterminal band and a pair of blue-green rectrices. Juveniles are similar to adult females.[3]
Distribution and habitat

This species is restricted to the Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and apparently to northern Bahia, though there are no recent records. The species is thought to be found only in the Atlantic Forest. Reports from eastern Pará are possibly inaccurate, and there is one specimen which was attributed to Guyana, although its true origin is unknown.[1][7]

The long-tailed woodnymph inhabits coastal lowland habitats such as coastal rainforest, cerrado, plantations and parks throughout its Atlantic forest range, from sea-level to 550 metres (1,800 ft). It forages at low to medium heights, generally at the periphery of vegetation.[3]
Ecology and behavior

The long-tailed woodnymph feeds on the nectar of flowering vines, cacti, epiphytes, trees and bushes, occasionally foraging on invertebrates captured in the air. Male establishes feeding territories which are aggressively defended against intraspecific and interspecific intruders.[1]

Breeding takes place between November and February. The woodnymph builds a cup-shaped nest made of fine rootlets and moss, tightly tied together by a spider's web. The nest is attached to a horizontal branch in a shrub or small tree, usually protected by overhanging leaves, 1.5–2.5 metres (4.9–8.2 ft) above the ground. The female typically lays two eggs, with an incubation period of 14–15 days, often carried by the female.[3]
Conservation status

Thalurania watertonii is listed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List, due to the ongoing reduction of its populations, mainly due to the extensive and continuing loss of habitat and the depletion of lowland forests in north-eastern Brazil.[1] Its occupation area is currently less than 500 km2. The population is severely fragmented, with the total population estimated to be less than 2,500 individuals, and each subpopulation contains less than 250 of them.[8][9]
References

BirdLife International (2017). "Thalurania watertonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22687402A119410693. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22687402A119410693.en. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
"Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
Schuchmann, Karl-Ludwig; Kirwan, Guy M.; Sharpe, Chris (4 March 2020). "Long-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania watertonii)". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D. A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). Birds of the World. Ithaca, NY, USA: Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
"Long-tailed Woodnymph". American Bird Conservancy. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
Las-Casas, Flor Maria Guedes; Azevedo-Júnior, Severino Mendes de (10 November 2010). "Dimorfismo sexual de tamanho no beija-flor-de-costas-violetas Thalurania watertonii (Bourcier, 1847) (Aves: Trochilidae): implicações ecológicas". Ornithologia (in Portuguese). 3 (2): 83–89. ISSN 1809-2969.
Mobbs, A. J. (1982). Hummingbirds. Hindhead, Surrey: Triplegate. ISBN 978-0862300494.
Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção (PDF) (in Brazilian Portuguese). Vol. III–Aves (1 ed.). Brasília, DF: ICMBio/MMA. 2018.
"Aves - Thalurania watertonii (Bourcier, 1847) - Beija-flor-de-costas-violetas". www.icmbio.gov.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
"Long-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania watertonii) - BirdLife species factsheet". datazone.birdlife.org.

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