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Lori péruviana

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordo: Psittaciformes

Familia: Psittaculidae
Subfamilia: Loriinae
Genus: Vini
Species: Vini peruviana
Name

Vini peruviana (P. L. S. Müller, 1776)

Original combination: Psttacus peruvianus

References

Natursyst.Suppl. p.80 BHL
Vini peruviana – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
IUCN: Vini peruviana (Vulnerable)

Vernacular names
català: Cotorra blava
English: Blue Lorikeet
español: Lori monjita
suomi: Tahitinlurikki
français: Lori nonnette
magyar: Zafírlóri
italiano: Lorichetto blu
日本語: ノドジロルリインコ
Nederlands: Saffierlori
polski: Loreczka białogardła
پنجابی: نیلا طوطا
русский: Синий лори-отшельник
svenska: safirlorikit

The blue lorikeet (Vini peruviana) is a small lorikeet from French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. It is also known as the Tahiti lorikeet, violet lorikeet, Tahitian lory, blue lory, nunbird, and the indigo lory. It was formerly found on 23 islands around Tahiti, but now restricted to perhaps eight islands: Motu, Manuae, Tikehau, Rangiroa, Aratua, Kaukura, Apataki, Aitutaki, and possibly Harvey Island and Manihi. Its plumage is mainly dark blue and it has a white area over its upper chest, throat and face. The first captive breeding in the UK was by the Marquess of Tavistock in the 1930s. He was awarded a silver medal by the Foreign Bird League for this achievement.

They are active birds, feeding on nectar, insects, and ground forage.

Distribution and habitat
Vini peruviana in Rangiroa

The blue lorikeet was originally endemic to the islands of French Polynesia.

It is also present in the Cook Islands, where it is one of a small number of landbirds on the island of Aitutaki. Dean Amadon, writing in 1942 after the Whitney South Seas Expedition, thought that it might have been introduced to the Cooks.[2] David Steadman, who studied the extinct species of the areas, wrote in 1991 that it might have been but that he could find no evidence of this. Had it been native there it would have coexisted with Kuhl's lorikeet; today no Vini lorikeets are sympatric.[3] He later concluded that it was probably introduced, as extensive excavations of fossils had found remains of Kuhl's lorikeet as well as two other species of extinct Vini lorikeet, but no fossils of the blue lorikeet.[4]

The blue lorikeet will live in any wooded habitat within its range, including cultivated areas.[5] It is most abundant in mixed stands of coconuts and Heliotropium foertherianum.[6]
Description

The blue lorikeet is 18 cm long with a short rounded tail. Its plumage is mainly dark blue and it has a white area over its upper chest, throat and lower face. Erectile feathers on the top of its head show light blue streaks. Its beak is orange and its irises are yellow-brown. It has orange legs. Adult males and females have identical external appearance. The juvenile lacks the white plumage of the adult and has a dark grey-blue face and lower parts. The juvenile also has a black bill, dark brown irises, and its legs are orange brown.[7] Blue plumage, which is shares with the related ultramarine lorikeet, is very unusual in the parrot order.[8]
Behaviour

They roost in coconut palm trees, rising at dawn and calling and preening before feeding.[9] They are usually found in small flocks of less than ten birds. They rest during the heat of the day in shade before resuming feeding in the afternoon. At dusk groups fly around calling until dark, when they retreat to spaces between palm leaves to roost for the night.[9]
Diet and feeding

Blue lorikeets feed on the nectar and pollen of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera), Guettarda speciosa, Pemphis acidula, bay cedar (Suriana maritima), beach mulberry (Morinda citrifolia), Heliotropium foertherianum, Scaevola spp and Musa.[6] On Rangiroa they fed mostly on coconut flowers during one three week study.[9] They feed silently in small groups, and use their brush-like tongue to lap up nectar and pollen. Where flowers had not fully opened, they will use their bills to open them. After all the flowers on one tree have been fed at, they will move to the next tree, calling as they go. They also feed on insects among leaves and on the forest floor, and on leaf shoots and soft fruits.[6][9]
Status
At Walsrode Bird Park, Germany

They are endangered primarily by invasive species, including cats, rats, swamp harriers, and mosquitoes carrying avian malaria.
References

BirdLife International (2016). "Vini peruviana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22684641A95212213. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22684641A95212213.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
Amadon, Dean (1942). "Birds collected during the Whitney South Sea Expedition. 50, Notes on some non-passerine genera. 2" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 1176: 1–21.
Steadman, David (1991). "Extinct and Extirpated Birds from Aitutaki and Atiu, Southern Cook Islands" (PDF). Pacific Science. 45 (4): 325–347. ISSN 0030-8870.
Steadman (2006) p. 218.
Collar, N. & Kirwan, G.M. (2017). Blue Lorikeet (Vini peruviana). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/54459 on 20 May 2017).
Ziembicki (2006), p. 19.
Forshaw (2006). plate 15.
Schweizer, Manuel; Wright, Timothy F.; Peñalba, Joshua V.; Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Joseph, Leo (2015). "Molecular phylogenetics suggests a New Guinean origin and frequent episodes of founder-event speciation in the nectarivorous lories and lorikeets (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 90: 34–48. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.04.021. PMID 25929786.

Gerischer B & Walther B (2003) "Behavioural observations of the blue lorikeet (Vini peruviana) on Rangiroa atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia" Notornis 50(1): 54-58 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2007-07-11.

Juniper & Parr (1998). Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. ISBN 0-300-07453-0.

Cited texts
Forshaw, Joseph M. (2006). Parrots of the World; an Identification Guide. Illustrated by Frank Knight. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09251-6.
Steadman, David (2006). Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 298.
Ziembicki, Marc; Raust, Philippe (2006). Status and conservation of the Vini lorikeets of French Polynesia. Report to the Loro Parque Foundation & CEPA (PDF). Papeete, French Polynesia: Société d’Ornithologie de Polynésie. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2017.

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