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Atelidae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorrhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Platyrrhini
Familia: Atelidae
Subfamilia: Atelinae - Alouattinae

Name

Atelidae, Gray, 1825

Vernacular names
Internationalization
한국어: 거미원숭이과
Svenska: Atelesliknande brednäsor

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Atelidae is one of the four families of New World monkeys now recognised. It was formerly included in the family Cebidae. Atelids are generally larger monkeys; the family includes the howler, spider, woolly and woolly spider monkeys (the latter being the largest of the New World monkeys). They are found throughout the forested regions of Central and South America, from Mexico to northern Argentina.

Characteristics

Atelid monkeys are small to moderate in size, ranging from 34 to 72 cm in head-body length, with the howler monkeys being the largest, and the spider monkeys the smallest, members of the group. They have long prehensile tails with a sensitive, almost hairless tactile pad on the underside of the distal part. The tail is frequently used as 'fifth limb' while moving through the trees where they make their homes. They also have nails on their fingers and toes, enabling them to climb. Most species have predominantly dark brown, grey, or black fur, often with paler markings.[2]

These are arboreal and diurnal animals, with most species restricted to dense rain forest, although some howler monkey species are found in drier forests, or wooded savannah. They mainly eat fruit and leaves, although the smaller species, in particular, may also eat some small insects. They have the dental formula: Upper: 2.1.3.3, lower: 2.1.3.3

Females give birth to a single infant (or, rarely, twins) after a gestation period of 180 to 225 days. In most species, individuals give birth every one to three years, and there is little, if any, seasonal peak in the number of births.[2]

Atelid monkeys are typically polygamous, and live in social groups with anything up to twenty five adults, depending on species. Where groups are relatively small, as is common amongst the howler monkeys, a single male monopolises a 'harem' of females, but larger groups will contain several males, with a clear hierarchy of dominance.[2]

Classification

There are currently 29 recognized species of atelid monkey, grouped into five genera, and two subfamilies.[1]

FAMILY ATELIDAE

* Subfamily Alouattinae
o Genus Alouatta, howler monkeys
+ Alouatta palliata group
# Coiba Island Howler, Alouatta coibensis
# Mantled Howler, Alouatta palliata
# Guatemalan Black Howler, Alouatta pigra
+ Alouatta seniculus group
# Ursine Howler, Alouatta arctoidea
# Red-handed Howler, Alouatta belzebul
# Spix's Red-handed Howler, Alouatta discolor
# Brown Howler, Alouatta guariba
# Juruá Red Howler, Alouatta juara
# Guyanan Red Howler, Alouatta macconnelli
# Amazon Black Howler, Alouatta nigerrima
# Purus Red Howler, Alouatta puruensis
# Bolivian Red Howler, Alouatta sara
# Venezuelan Red Howler, Alouatta seniculus
# Maranhão Red-handed Howler, Alouatta ululata
+ Alouatta caraya group
# Black Howler, Alouatta caraya
* Subfamily Atelinae
o Genus Ateles, spider monkeys
+ Red-faced Spider Monkey, Ateles paniscus
+ White-fronted Spider Monkey, Ateles belzebuth
+ Peruvian Spider Monkey, Ateles chamek
+ Brown Spider Monkey, Ateles hybridus
+ White-cheeked Spider Monkey, Ateles marginatus
+ Black-headed Spider Monkey, Ateles fusciceps
+ Geoffroy's Spider Monkey, Ateles geoffroyi
o Genus Brachyteles, muriquis (woolly spider monkeys)
+ Southern Muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides
+ Northern Muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus
o Genus Lagothrix, woolly monkeys
+ Brown Woolly Monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha
+ Gray Woolly Monkey, Lagothrix cana
+ Colombian Woolly Monkey, Lagothrix lugens
+ Silvery Woolly Monkey, Lagothrix poeppigii
o Genus Oreonax
+ Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey, Oreonax flavicauda


References

1. ^ a b Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M, eds. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 148-152. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100372.
2. ^ a b c Macdonald, D., ed (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 361. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License