Catarrhini

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorrhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Catarrhini
Superfamiliae: Cercopithecoidea - Hominoidea - †Dendropithecoidea - †Pliopithecoidea - †Proconsuloidea - †Propliopithecoidea - †Saadanioidea - incertae sedis
[sources: Harrison (2005: 44, table 1; 45, table 3), Zalmout et al. (2010)]

References

cited sources

Harrison, T. 2005: The zoogeographic and phylogenetic relationships of early catarrhine primates in Asia. Anthropological science, 113: 43-51. PDF
Zalmout, I.S. et al. 2010: New Oligocene primate from Saudi Arabia and the divergence of apes and Old World monkeys. Nature, 466: 360–364. doi: 10.1038/nature09094

Vernacular name
Català: Catarrhini
Dansk: Østaber
Deutsch: Altweltaffen
English: Catarrhini
Español: Catarrinos
فارسی: راست‌بینیان
Français: Catarrhiniens
Galego: Catarrinos (Monos do Vello Mundo)
한국어: 협비원소목
Hrvatski: Majmuni Starog svijeta
עברית: קופים צרי אף
Nederlands: Smalneusapen
日本語: 狭鼻小目
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Østaper
Polski: Małpy wąskonose
Português: Macacos do Velho Mundo/Catarrinos
Русский: Узконосые обезьяны
Svenska: Smalnäsapor (smalnäsor, Gamla världens apor, östapor)
Türkçe: Eski Dünya maymunları - Dar burunlu maymunlar

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Catarrhini is one of the two subdivisions of the higher primates (the other being the New World monkeys). It contains the Old World monkeys and the apes, which in turn are further divided into the lesser apes or gibbons and the great apes, consisting of the orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. They are all native to Africa and Asia.

Description

The name Catarrhini means drooping nose[1] or downward nosed,[2] and refers to their narrow, downward pointing nostrils,[3] in contrast with the outward pointing nostrils of the New World monkeys (Platyrrhini).[4]

Like the platyrrhines (with the exception of the genus Aotus), the catarrhines are diurnal.[3]

Apes do not have tails.[1] The tails of Old World Monkeys are not prehensile, but serve as balancing organs. Catarrhines have flat finger- and toenails.[3] They have prehensile (grasping) hands, and all but humans also have prehensile feet.[2] Their dental formula is Upper: 2.1.2.3, lower: 2.1.2.3.[3]

Most species show considerable sexual dimorphism and do not form a pair bond. Most, but not all, species live in social groups.[citation needed]

Classification and evolution

The apes and Old World monkeys split from their New World monkey kin about 35 million years ago. The major catarrhine division occurred about 25 mya, with the gibbons separating from the great apes (including humans) about 15-19 mya.[5]

* ORDER PRIMATES[6]
o Suborder Strepsirrhini: lemurs, lorises, etc.
o Suborder Haplorrhini: tarsiers, monkeys and apes
+ Infraorder Tarsiiformes
# Family Tarsiidae: tarsiers
+ Infraorder Simiiformes: simians, or higher primates
# Parvorder Catarrhini
* Superfamily Cercopithecoidea
o Family Cercopithecidae: Old World monkeys
* Superfamily †Propliopithecoidea
o Family †Propliopithecidae (includes Aegyptopithecus)
* Superfamily †Saadanioidea
o Family †Saadaniidae
* Superfamily Hominoidea
o Family Hylobatidae: gibbons
o Family Hominidae: great apes (including humans)
# Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys


Late Asian catarrhines

In May 2005, three new primate fossils were discovered in the Bugti Hills of Pakistan. These hills lock away many primate mysteries. One of these mysteries was uncovered in 2001, when the early primate Bugtilemur was discovered and led to the assumption that lemurs came from Asia, not Africa. The three primates called Bugtipithecus inexpectans, Phileosimias kamali, and Phileosimias brahuiorum all date back to the Oligocene some 30 million years ago - when monkeys dominated only Africa. These were small lemur-like catarrhines that prospered in an ancient tropical rainforest. Possibly these Asian catarrhines led nowhere in evolution, a side branch from Eosimias. Other possible new catarrhines fossils have been uncovered in China, Thailand, and Burma. [7]

References

1. ^ a b Baines, Elizabeth (1997). "Apes and Humans". The University of Edinburgh. http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/index.php?page=493.504.508.505. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
2. ^ a b catarrhine. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 21, 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
3. ^ a b c d "Catarrhini Infraorder". ChimpanZoo (The Jane Goodall Institute). http://www.chimpanzoo.org/catarrhi.html. Retrieved January 2010.
4. ^ "Haplorhine Infraorders" (PDF). p. 11. http://homepage.mac.com/wis/Personal/lectures/primate-adaptation/06TarsiersAndNWMs.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
5. ^ Carlos G. Schrago, Claudia A. M. Russo (2003-06-27). "Timing the Origin of New World Monkeys". Molecular Biology and Evolution. Oxford Journals. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/20/10/1620. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
6. ^ Groves, Colin P. (16 November 2005). "ORDER PRIMATES". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=12100001.
7. ^ Marivaux et al. (June 2005). "Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): Data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography". PNAS 102 (24): 8436–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503469102. PMID 15937103. PMC 1150860. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/24/8436. (Full text PDF)

* Sellers, Bill (2000-10-20). "Primate Evolution" (PDF). http://homepage.mac.com/wis/Personal/lectures/human-origins/PrimateEvolution.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-21.

* Disotell, T. R.; Noviello, C. M.; Raaum, R. L.; Sterner, K. N.; Stewart, C. (2005). "Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear DNA evidence". J. Hum. Evol. (48): 237-257.

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