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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Ordo: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohort: Theria
Cohort: Eutheria
Cohort: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Laurasiatheria
Cladus: Ferae
Ordo: Carnivora
Subordo: Caniformia

Familia: Mustelidae
Subfamilia: Mustelinae

Genera (15 + 1†): Arctonyx - Eira - Galictis - Gulo - Ictonyx - Lyncodon - Martes - Meles - Mellivora - Melogale - Mustela - Neovison - Poecilogale - Taxidea - Vormela – †Arctomeles

Name

Mustelinae Fischer, 1817
References

Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, 5: 372.
Mustelinae in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
Mustelinae Fischer, 1817 – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Vernacular names
Esperanto: Mustelenoj
español: Mustélido
polski: Łasice właściwe
svenska: Järv
ไทย: วงศ์ย่อยเพียงพอน, วงศ์ย่อยวีเซล
Türkçe: Sansarlar

Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets and minks.[1][2]

It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).[3]
Extant species of Mustelinae

Subfamily Mustelinae

Image Genus Living species
Mustela nivalis -British Wildlife Centre-4.jpg Mustela Linnaeus, 1758 (weasels, ferrets, European mink and stoats)
  • Mountain weasel, Mustela altaica
  • Stoat or ermine, Mustela erminea
  • Steppe polecat, Mustela eversmannii
  • Domesticated ferret, Mustela furo
  • Haida ermine, Mustela haidarum
  • Japanese weasel, Mustela itatsi
  • Yellow-bellied weasel, Mustela kathiah
  • European mink, Mustela lutreola
  • Indonesian mountain weasel, Mustela lutreolina
  • Black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes
  • Least weasel, Mustela nivalis
  • Malayan weasel, Mustela nudipes
  • European polecat, Mustela putorius
  • American ermine, Mustela richardsonii
  • Siberian weasel, Mustela sibirica
  • Back-striped weasel, Mustela strigidorsa
American Mink.jpg Neogale Gray, 1865 (New World weasels and mink)
  • Amazon weasel, Neogale africana
  • Colombian weasel, Neogale felipei
  • Long-tailed weasel, Neogale frenata
  • American mink, Neogale vison

The sea mink (Neogale macrodon) is a recently extinct species from the 19th century that was native to the Maritime Provinces of Canada and New England in the United States.
Importance for humans

Some of the fashion furs come from this subfamily: ermine, weasel, mink and polecat.[4]
Ferret model of COVID-19
Mustela sibirica

COVID-19 can infect both the European mink (Mustela lutreola) and the American mink (Neogale vison). Ferrets are used to study COVID-19.[5] Ferrets get some of the same symptoms as humans,[6] but they get less sick than farmed mink.[7] Ferrets are a fairly uncommon animal to use as a model, but mice were not an easy model of COVID-19 because mice lack the ACE2 gene.[5]
References

Nascimento, F. O. do (2014). "On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora)". Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo). 54 (21): 307–313. doi:10.1590/0031-1049.2014.54.21.
Law, C. J.; Slater, G. J.; Mehta, R. S. (2018-01-01). "Lineage Diversity and Size Disparity in Musteloidea: Testing Patterns of Adaptive Radiation Using Molecular and Fossil-Based Methods". Systematic Biology. 67 (1): 127–144. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syx047. PMID 28472434.
Koepfli KP, Deere KA, Slater GJ, et al. (2008). "Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: Resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation". BMC Biol. 6: 4–5. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-10. PMC 2276185. PMID 18275614.
"History of Fur in Fashion: Introduction". 4 December 2011.
Muñoz-Fontela, César; Dowling, William E.; Funnell, Simon G. P.; Gsell, Pierre-S.; Riveros-Balta, A. Ximena; Albrecht, Randy A.; Andersen, Hanne; Baric, Ralph S.; Carroll, Miles W.; Cavaleri, Marco; Qin, Chuan; Crozier, Ian; Dallmeier, Kai; de Waal, Leon; de Wit, Emmie; Delang, Leen; Dohm, Erik; Duprex, W. Paul; Falzarano, Darryl; Finch, Courtney L.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Graham, Barney S.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Guilfoyle, Kate; Haagmans, Bart L.; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Hartman, Amy L.; Herfst, Sander; Kaptein, Suzanne J. F.; Klimstra, William B.; Knezevic, Ivana; Krause, Philip R.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Le Grand, Roger; Lewis, Mark G.; Liu, Wen-Chun; Maisonnasse, Pauline; McElroy, Anita K.; Munster, Vincent; Oreshkova, Nadia; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Rocha-Pereira, Joana; Rockx, Barry; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Rogers, Thomas F.; Salguero, Francisco J.; Schotsaert, Michael; Stittelaar, Koert J.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Tseng, Chien-Te; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Beer, Martin; Brasel, Trevor; Chan, Jasper F. W.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Neyts, Johan; Perlman, Stanley; Reed, Douglas S.; Richt, Juergen A.; Roy, Chad J.; Segalés, Joaquim; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana María; Barouch, Dan H. (October 2020). "Animal models for COVID-19". Nature. 586 (7830): 509–515. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2787-6. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 8136862. PMID 32967005.
"Table 1 SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and in animal models". Retrieved 14 November 2020.
Racaniello, Vincent; Despommier, Dickson; Dove, Alan; Condit, Rich; Barker, Brianne; Griffin, Daniel; Rosenfeld, Amy. "TWiV 679: Mink, mutation, and myocytes | This Week in Virology". TWiV. Retrieved 14 November 2020.

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