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Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Carnivora
Subordo: Caniformia
Familia: Procyonidae
Subfamiliae: Potosinae - Procyoninae


Procyonidae (Gray, 1825)


* Procyonidae on Mammal species of the World.
* Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2 Volume Set edited by Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder

Vernacular names
Български: Енотови
English: Raccons
Español: Mapaches
Svenska: Halvbjörnar
Türkçe: Rakungiller
Українська: Єнотові
中文: 浣熊科

Procyonidae is a New World family of the order Carnivora.[1] It includes the raccoons, coatis, kinkajous, olingos, ringtails and cacomistles. Procyonids inhabit a wide range of environments, and are generally omnivorous.


Procyonids are relatively small animals, with generally slender bodies and long tails. (The common raccoon tends to be bulky.) Except for the kinkajou, all procyonids have banded tails, and distinct facial markings. These are especially visible in the raccoons. Like bears, procyonids are plantigrade, walking on the soles of their feet. Most species have non-retractile claws.

Because of their omnivorous diet, procyonids have lost some of the adaptations for flesh-eating found in their carnivorous relatives. While they do have carnassial teeth, these are poorly developed in most species, especially the raccoons. Apart from the kinkajou, procyonids have the dental formula:

While coatis are diurnal, all other procyonids are nocturnal. They are mostly solitary animals, and the mother raises litters of up to four young on her own.[2]


Fossils belonging to the genus Bassariscus, which includes the modern ringtail and cacomistle, have been identified from the Miocene epoch, around 20 million years ago. It has been suggested that early procyonids were an offshoot of the canids that adapted to a more omnivorous diet.[2]


Recent genetic studies have shown that the kinkajous were an early offshoot of the ancestral procyonid line and are not closely related to any of the other extant genera; coatis and olingos are closest relatives, while the closest relatives of the raccoons are the ringtails and cacomistles.[3] These data are not yet reflected in the classification scheme, which groups kinkajous and olingos together on the basis of similarities in morphology which are now known to be an example of parallel evolution.

There is considerable uncertainty over the correct classification of several members. The Red Panda was previously classified in this family, but it is now classified it in its own family the Ailuridae, based on molecular biology studies. The status of the various olingos is disputed: they may all be better regarded as subspecies of Bassaricyon gabbii.

Because of their general build, the Procyonidae are often viewed as smaller cousins of the bear family. This is apparent in their German names: a raccoon is called a Waschbär (washing bear, as he "washes" his food before eating), a coati is a Nasenbär (nose-bear) while a Kinkajou is a Honigbär (honey-bear). Dutch follows suit, calling the animals wasbeer, neusbeer and rolstaartbeer respectively.

Subfamily Procyoninae (9 species in 4 genera)
Tribe Procyonini
Subtribe Procyonina
Raccoons, Procyon
Crab-eating Raccoon, Procyon cancrivorus
Cozumel Raccoon, Procyon pygmaeus
Common Raccoon, Procyon lotor
Coatis, Subtribe Nasuina
South American Coati or Ring-tailed Coati, Nasua nasua
White-nosed Coati, Nasua narica
Cozumel Island Coati, Nasua nelsoni
Western Mountain Coati, Nasuella olivacea
Eastern Mountain Coati, Nasuella meridensis
Tribe Bassariscini
Ringtail, Bassariscus astutus
Cacomistle, Bassariscus sumichrasti
Subfamily Potosinae (6 species in 2 genera)
Kinkajou, Potos flavus
Olingo, Bassaricyon
Bushy-tailed Olingo or Gabbi's Olingo, Bassaricyon gabbii
Allen's Olingo, Bassaricyon alleni
Beddard's Olingo, Bassaricyon beddardi
Harris's Olingo, Bassaricyon lasius
Chiriqui Olingo, Bassaricyon pauli


^ Wozencraft, W. Christopher (16 November 2005). "Order Carnivora (pp. 532-628)". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
^ a b Russell, James (1984). Macdonald, D.. ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
^ K.-P. Koepfli, M. E. Gompper, E. Eizirik, C.-C. Ho, L. Linden, J. E. Maldonado, R. K. Wayne (2007). "Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carvnivora): Molecules, morphology and the Great American Interchange". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43 (3): 1076–1095. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.003. PMID 17174109.

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