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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Cladus: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Infraordo: Eucynodontia
Cladus: Probainognathia
Cladus: Prozostrodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohors: Theria
Cohors: Eutheria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Laurasiatheria
Cladus: Euungulata
Ordo: Artiodactyla
Cladus: Artiofabula
Subordo: Suina

Familia: Suidae
Subfamiliae (8): Babyrousinae - Phacochoerinae - Suinae - †Cainochoerinae - †Hyotheriinae - †Kubanochoerinae - †Listriodontinae - †Tetraconodontinae
Overview of genera (6 + 24†)

BabyrousaHylochoerusPhacochoerus – Porcula – PotamochoerusSus – †Albanohyus – †Aureliachoerus – †Bunolistriodon – †Cainochoerus – †Celebochoerus – †Chicochoerus – †Chleuastochoerus – †Eocenchoerus – †Eurolistriodon – †Hyotherium – †Kolpochoerus – †Kubanochoerus – †Libyochoerus – †Listriodon – †Lopholistriodon – †Megalochoerus – †Nguruwe – †Palaeochoerus – †Parachleuastochoerus – †Propotamochoerus – †Siamochoerus – †Sinapriculus – †Tetraconodon – †Xenohyus
Name

Suidae J. E. Gray, 1821
Synonyms

?†Palaeochoeridae

References

Suidae in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
Harris, John M.; Li-Ping Liu (2007). "10. Superfamily Suoidea". In: Donald R. Prothero, Scott E Foss (ed.). The evolution of artiodactyls. ISBN 9780801887352. Google books

Links

NZOR (demonstration website)

Vernacular names
Akan: Preko
Boarisch: Saun, Schweindeln, Farkén
беларуская: Свінні
Deutsch: Echte Schweine
eʋegbe: Ha
Ελληνικά: Χοιροειδή
English: Pigs
español: Cerdos
suomi: Siat
Nordfriisk: Echt swin
magyar: Disznófélék
italiano: Suidi
日本語: イノシシ科
한국어: 멧돼지과
Nederlands: Varkens
norsk: Svinedyr
polski: Świniowate
português: Suídeos
svenska: Svin
Türkçe: Domuzgiller
українська: Свині
Tiếng Việt: Heo
中文: 猪科

Suidae is a family of artiodactyl mammals which are commonly called pigs, hogs or swine. In addition to numerous fossil species, 18 extant species are currently recognized (or 19 counting domestic pigs and wild boars separately), classified into between four and eight genera. Within this family, the genus Sus includes the domestic pig, Sus scrofa domesticus or Sus domesticus, and many species of wild pig from Europe to the Pacific. Other genera include babirusas and warthogs. All suids, or swine, are native to the Old World, ranging from Asia to Europe and Africa.

The earliest fossil suids date from the Oligocene epoch in Asia, and their descendants reached Europe during the Miocene.[1] Several fossil species are known and show adaptations to a wide range of different diets, from strict herbivory to possible carrion-eating (in Tetraconodontinae).[2]

Physical characteristics

Suids belong to the order Artiodactyla, and are generally regarded as the living members of that order most similar to the ancestral form. Unlike most other members of the order, they have four toes on each foot, although they walk only on the middle two digits, with the others staying clear of the ground. They also have a simple stomach, rather than the more complex, ruminant, stomach found in most other artiodactyl families.[3]

They are small to medium animals, varying in size from 58 to 66 cm (23 to 26 in) in length, and 6 to 9 kg (13 to 20 lb) in weight in the case of the pygmy hog, to 130–210 cm (4.3–6.9 ft) and 100–275 kg (220–606 lb) in the giant forest hog.[4] They have large heads and short necks, with relatively small eyes and prominent ears. Their heads have a distinctive snout, ending in a disc-shaped nose. Suids typically have a bristly coat, and a short tail ending in a tassle.[citation needed] The males possess a corkscrew-shaped penis, which fits into a similarly shaped groove in the female's cervix.[5][6][7]

Suids have a well-developed sense of hearing, and are vocal animals, communicating with a series of grunts, squeals, and similar sounds. They also have an acute sense of smell. Many species are omnivorous, eating grass, leaves, roots, insects, worms, and even frogs or mice. Other species are more selective and purely herbivorous.[3]

Their teeth reflect their diet, and suids retain the upper incisors, which are lost in most other artiodactyls. The canine teeth are enlarged to form prominent tusks, used for rooting in moist earth or undergrowth, and in fighting. They have only a short diastema. The number of teeth varies between species, but the general dental formula is: 1–3.1.2–4.33.1.2.3.
Behavior and reproduction
Wild boar feeding on carcass in Yala National Park, Sri Lanka

Suids are intelligent and adaptable animals. Adult females (sows) and their young travel in a group (sounder; see List of animal names), while adult males (boars) are either solitary, or travel in small bachelor groups. Males generally are not territorial, and come into conflict only during the mating season.

Litter size varies between one and twelve, depending on the species. The mother prepares a grass nest or similar den, which the young leave after about ten days. Suids are weaned at around three months, and become sexually mature at 18 months. In practice, however, male suids are unlikely to gain access to sows in the wild until they have reached their full physical size, at around four years of age. In all species, the male is significantly larger than the female, and possesses more prominent tusks.[3]
Classification
Bornean bearded pig (Sus barbatus)
Chleuastochoerus fossil skull
See also: List of suines

The following 18 extant species of suid are currently recognised:[8]

Image Genus Living species
Locha(js).jpg Sus – pigs
  • Sus ahoenobarbus – Palawan bearded pig
  • Sus barbatus – Bornean bearded pig
  • Sus cebifrons – Visayan warty pig
  • Sus celebensis – Sulawesi warty pig
  • Sus oliveri – Mindoro warty pig
  • Sus philippensis – Philippine warty pig
  • Sus scrofa – wild boar
    • Sus scrofa domesticus – domestic pig (sometimes treated as a full species, S. domestica)
  • Sus verrucosus – Javan warty pig
Pygmy hog in Assam breeding centre AJT Johnsingh.JPG Porcula
  • Porcula salvania – pygmy hog
Hylochoerus meinertzhageni2.jpg Hylochoerus
  • Hylochoerus meinertzhageni – giant forest hog
Laufendes Pinselohrschwein Zoo Landau.JPG Potamochoerus
  • Potamochoerus larvatus – bushpig
  • Potamochoerus porcus – red river hog
Southern warthog (Phacochoerus africanus sundevallii) male.jpg Phacochoerus – warthog
  • Phacochoerus africanus – common warthog
  • Phacochoerus aethiopicus – desert warthog
Hirscheber1a.jpg Babyrousa – babirusa
  • Babyrousa babyrussa – Moluccan babirusa
  • Babyrousa bolabatuensis – Bola Batu babirusa
  • Babyrousa celebensis – North Sulawesi babirusa
  • Babyrousa togeanensis – Togian babirusa

Phylogeny

Cladogram of Suidae. Mikko's Phylogeny Archive (Based is McKenna & Bell, 1997, Liu, 2003 и Harris & Liu, 2007):[9]

? dagger Mabokopithecus

dagger Hemichoerus

dagger Paradoxodonides

dagger Cainochoerus

dagger Hyotheriinae

dagger Chleuastochoerus

dagger Dubiotherium

dagger Sinapriculus

dagger Hyotherium

dagger Listriodontinae

dagger Listriodon

dagger Lopholistriodon

dagger Eurolistriodon

dagger Bunolistriodon

dagger Kubanochoerinae

dagger Nguruwe

? dagger Kenyasus

dagger Libycochoerus

dagger Megalochoerus

dagger Kubanochoerus

dagger Miochoerus

dagger Tetraconodontinae

dagger Conohyus

dagger Tetraconodon

dagger Parachleuastochoerus

dagger Lophochoerus

dagger Sivachoerus

dagger Nyanzachoerus

dagger Notochoerus

dagger Namachoerinae

dagger Namachoerus

Suinae
Suini

dagger Korynochoerus

dagger Hippopotamodon

dagger Eumaiochoerus

dagger Microstonyx

Sus sensu lato

Sus sensu stricto

Porcula

? Dasychoerus

? Euhys

Potamochoerini

? dagger Celebochoerus

? dagger Propotamochoerus

dagger “Kolpochoerus” afarensis

Potamochoerus

dagger Kolpochoerus

Hylochoerus

dagger Hippohyini

dagger Sivahyus

dagger Hippohyus

? dagger Sinohyus

Babyrousini

Babyrousa

Phacochoerini

dagger Potamochoeroides

dagger Metridiochoerus

Phacochoerus



References

Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 269. ISBN 1-84028-152-9.
Savage, RJG, & Long, MR (1986). Mammal Evolution: an illustrated guide. New York: Facts on File. pp. 212–213. ISBN 0-8160-1194-X.
Cumming, David (1984). Macdonald, D. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 500–503. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
"Forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) - Quick facts".
Bonnie S. Dunbar; M.G. O'Rand (29 June 2013). A Comparative Overview of Mammalian Fertilization. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 330–. ISBN 978-1-4757-8982-9.
Peter G. G. Jackson; Peter D. Cockcroft (2007). Handbook of Pig Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-7020-2828-1.
Virginia Douglass Hayssen; Ari Van Tienhoven (1993). Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-specific Data. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1753-8. "suidae penis."
Wilson, Don E.; Mittermeier, Russell A., eds. (2011). Handbook of the Mammal Species of the World, vol. 2. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 274–291. ISBN 978-8496553774.
"SUIDAE – pigs". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Archived from the original on 2021-07-17. Retrieved 2021-08-13.

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