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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Ordo: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohort: Theria
Cohort: Eutheria
Cohort: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Laurasiatheria
Ordo: Perissodactyla

Familia: Tapiridae
Genus: Tapirus
Species (5 + †9): †T. antiquus – †T. arvernensis – T. bairdii – †T. balkanicus – †T. copei – T. indicus – †T. jeanpiveteaui – T. kabomani – T. pinchaque – †T. priscus – T. terrestris – †T. mesopotamicus – †T. rondoniensis – †T. webbi


Tapirus Brisson, 1762: 80 [conserved name]

Type species: Hippopotamus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758, by designation under the Plenary Powers (1998: 65).
Gender: masculine.
Placed on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology by Opinion 1894 (1998: 65).

Primary references

Brisson, M.J. 1762. Regnum animale in classes IX. Distributum, Sive, Synopsis Methodica, Sistens generalem Animalium distributionem in Classes IX, & duarum primarum Classium, Quadrupedum scilicet & Cetaceorum, particularem divisionem in Ordines, Sectiones, Genera & Species. Cum brevi cujusque Speciei Descriptione, Cicationibus Auctorum de iis tractantium, Nominibus eis ab ipsis & Nationibus impositis, Nominibusque vulgaribus. Theodorum Haak: Lugduni Batavorum. 7 + 296 pp. BHL Reference page.
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 1998. Opinion 1894. Regnum Animale ..., Ed. 2 (M.J. Brisson, 1762): rejected for nomenclatural purposes, with the conservation of the mammalian generic names Philander (Marsupialia), Pteropus (Chiroptera), Glis, Cuniculus and Hydrochoerus (Rodentia), Meles, Lutra and Hyaena (Carnivora), Tapirus (Perissodactyla), Tragulus and Giraffa (Artiodactyla). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(1): 64–71. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Holanda, E.C.; Ferigolo, J.; Ribeiro, A.M. 2011: New Tapirus species (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the upper Pleistocene of Amazonia, Brazil. Journal of mammalogy 92(1): 111–120. DOI: 10.1644/10-MAMM-A-144.1 Reference page.


Tapirus in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
Tapirus – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Vernacular names
беларуская: Тапіры
български: Тапир
català: Tapir
Deutsch: Tapir
English: Tapir
Esperanto: Tapiro
français: Tapir
日本語: バク属
português do Brasil: Anta
ไทย: สมเสร็จ, ผสมเสร็จ
Türkçe: Tapir
українська: Тапіри
中文: 貘属

Tapirus is a genus which contains the three living American tapir species. The Malayan tapir is usually included in Tapirus as well, although some authorities have moved it into its own genus, Acrocodia.[1]

Extant species

Image Scientific name Common name Distribution Notes
Bairds Tapir.jpg Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865) Baird's tapir (also called the Central American tapir) Mexico, Central America and northwestern South America Includes Kabomani tapir (Tapirus kabomani).
Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) male (27546923604).jpg Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) South American tapir (also called the Brazilian tapir or lowland tapir) Venezuela, Colombia, and the Guianas in the north to Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in the south, to Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador in the West.
Tapirus pinchaque portrait.jpg Tapirus pinchaque (Roulin, 1829) Mountain tapir (also called the woolly tapir) Eastern and Central Cordilleras mountains in Colombia, Ecuador, and the far north of Peru.
Schabrackentapir Tapirus indicus Tiergarten-Nuernberg-1.jpg Tapirus indicus Desmarest, 1819 Malayan tapir (also called the Asian tapir, Oriental tapir or Indian tapir) Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand May be placed in Acrocodia

The Kabomani tapir was at one point recognized as another living member of the genus, but is now considered to be nested within T. terrestris.[2][3]

Tapirus first appeared in the Late Miocene in North America, with Tapirus webbi perhaps the oldest known fossil species.

Tapirus spread into South America and Eurasia during the Pliocene. It has been suggested that the tapirs that inhabited North America during the Late Pleistocene may be derived from a South American species that remigrated north, perhaps Tapirus cristatellus.[4]

Tapirs suffered large-scale extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene, and went completely extinct north of southern Mexico.
Fossil species

†Tapirus arvernensis Croizet & Jobert, 1828
†Tapirus augustus Matthew & Granger, 1923 - Formerly Megatapirus
†Tapirus californicus Merriam, 1912
†Tapirus copei Simpson, 1945
†Tapirus cristatellus Winge, 1906
†Tapirus greslebini Rusconi, 1934
†Tapirus johnsoni Schultz et al., 1975
†Tapirus lundeliusi Hulbert, 2010
†Tapirus merriami Frick, 1921
†Tapirus mesopotamicus Ferrero & Noriega, 2007
†Tapirus oliverasi Ubilla, 1983 - Invalid[4][5]
†Tapirus polkensis Olsen, 1860
†Tapirus rioplatensis Cattoi, 1957
†Tapirus rondoniensis Holanda et al., 2011
†Tapirus sanyuanensis Huang & Fang, 1991[6]
†Tapirus simpsoni Schultz et al., 1975
†Tapirus sinensis Owen, 1870[6]
†Tapirus tarijensis Ameghino, 1902
†Tapirus veroensis Sellards, 1918
†Tapirus webbi Hulbert, 2005


Groves, C.; Grubb, P (2011). Ungulate taxonomy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 18.
Ruiz-García, Manuel; Castellanos, Armando; Bernal, Luz Agueda; Pinedo-Castro, Myreya; Kaston, Franz; Shostell, Joseph M. (2016-03-01). "Mitogenomics of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque, Tapiridae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia) in Colombia and Ecuador: Phylogeography and insights into the origin and systematics of the South American tapirs". Mammalian Biology. 81 (2): 163–175. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2015.11.001. ISSN 1616-5047.
"All About the Terrific Tapir | Tapir Specialist Group". Tapir Specialist Group. Retrieved 2018-12-01.
Holanda, E.C.; Ferrero, B.S. (2012). "Reappraisal of the Genus Tapirus (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae): Systematics and Phylogenetic Affinities of the South American Tapirs". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 20: 33–44. doi:10.1007/s10914-012-9196-z.
Holanda, E.C.; Rincón, A.D. (2012). "Tapirs from the Pleistocene of Venezuela". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57 (3): 463–473. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0001.
Tong, H. (2002). "On fossil remains of Early Pleistocene tapir (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from Fanchang, Anhui". Chinese Science Bulletin. 47: 586–590.

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