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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Ordo: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohort: Theria
Cohort: Eutheria
Cohort: Placentalia
Cladus: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Euarchontoglires
Ordo: Rodentia
Subordo: Myomorpha
Superfamilia: Muroidea

Familia: Muridae
Subfamilia: Murinae
Genus: Tokudaia
Species: Tokudaia muenninki

Tokudaia muenninki (Johnson, 1946): 170

Type locality: "Hentona, western coast of northern Okinawa Island, Riu Kiu Islands"; Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

Holotype: USNM 278757

Tokudaia muenninki Musser & Carleton, 1993: 670
Tokudaia osimensis partim Kuroda, 1943: 61
Tokudaia osimensis muenninki Ellerman & Morrison-Scott, 1951: 558
Tokudamys osimensis muenninki Johnson, 1946: 170

Eponymy: type specimen collected by David H. Johnson & Odis A. Muennink, 24 September 1945 [Johnson, 1946: 170]
Primary references

Kuroda, N. 1943. アマミトゲネズミ沖縄島に発見せらる [The occurrence of the spinous rat in Okinawa Island in the central Riu Kiu Islands.] Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan 13: 59–64. Reference page.
Johnson, D.H. 1946. The spiny rats of the Riu Kiu Islands. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 59: 169–172. BHL Reference page.
Ellerman, J.R. & Morrison-Scott, T.C.S. 1951. Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. British Museum (Natural History): London. BHL Reference page.
Musser, G.G. & Carleton, M.D. 1993. Family Muridae. Pp. 501–755 in Wilson, D.E. & Reeder, D.M. (eds.) . Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 2rd edition. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C. ISBN 9781560982173. Reference page.

Additional references

Kaneko, Y. 2001. Morphological discrimination of the Ryukyu spiny rat (genus Tokudaia) between the islands of Okinawa and Amami Oshima, in the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. Mammal Study 26(1): 17–33. DOI: 10.3106/mammalstudy.26.17 Reference page.


Tokudaia muenninki in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E. & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (Editors) 2005. Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0-8018-8221-4.
IUCN: Tokudaia muenninki (Johnson, 1946) (Critically Endangered)

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Okinawa-Inselstachelratte
English: Okinawa Island Spiny Rat
español: Rata espinosa de Okinawa
français: Mulot d'Okinawa
日本語: オキナワトゲネズミ

Muennink's spiny rat (Tokudaia muenninki) or Okinawa spiny rat (Japanese: オキナワトゲネズミ, romanized: Okinawa togenezumi or 沖縄棘鼠) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.[2] Endemic to Okinawa Island, Japan, its natural habitat is subtropical moist broadleaf forest. The karyotype has 2n = 44.[2] Its sex chromosomes are abnormally large, while the other two species in Tokudaia have lost their Y chromosome.[3] It is found only on the northern part (Yanbaru area) of the island, above 300 m,[1] and is thought to inhabit an area of less than 3 km2.[4]

The head and body are up to 7 inches long with a 5-inch tail. They weigh up to 7 ounces. They have a short thick body and dense fur, consisting of fine hairs and coarse, grooved spines (hence the common name “spiny rat”). The fur is brownish above and grayish white below with a faint orange tinge. The spines on the animal's back are black throughout while the spines underneath are usually white with a reddish-brown tip. The spines cover the body except for the regions around the mouth, ears, feet and tail. The tail is bi-colored for its entire length.[5]

The species is threatened by deforestation, predation by feral cats and introduced mongooses, and competition with introduced black rats.[1] In March 2008, the first wild specimen in over 30 years was caught in the northern part of Okinawa island.[6]

Ishii, N. (2016). "Tokudaia muenninki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T21972A22409515. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T21972A22409515.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D. (2005). "Superfamily Muroidea". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1512–1513. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
Murata, C.; Yamada, F.; Kawauchi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kuroiwa, A. (2011-12-24). "The Y chromosome of the Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki, was rescued through fusion with an autosome". Chromosome Research. 20 (1): 111–125. doi:10.1007/s10577-011-9268-6. PMID 22198613. Free to read
"Okinawa Spiny Rat". EDGE of Existence.
"EDGE of Existence". EDGE of Existence. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
"幻のネズミ、30年ぶり捕獲 沖縄北部の絶滅危惧種". Archived from the original on 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2008-03-09.

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