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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea

Familia: Dipsadidae
Subfamilia: Dipsadinae
Genus: Atractus
Species (143): A. aboiporu – A. acheronius – A. albuquerquei – A. alphonsehogei – A. altagratiae – A. alytogrammus – A. andinus – A. apophis – A. atlas – A. atratus – A. attenuates – A. avernus – A. ayeush – A. badius – A. biseriatus – A. bocki – A. bocourti – A. boimirim – A. boulengerii – A. caete – A. careolepis – A. carrioni – A. caxiuana – A. cerberus – A. charitoae – A. chthonius – A. clarki – A. collaris – A. crassicaudatus – A. dapsilis – A. darienensis – A. depressiocellus – A. duboisi – A. duidensis – A. dunni – A. echidna – A. ecuadorensis – A. edioi – A. elaps – A. emigdioi – A. emmeli – A. eriki – A. erythromelas – A. esepe – A. favae – A. flammigerus – A. franciscopaivai – A. francoi – A. fuliginosus – A. gaigeae – A. gigas – A. guentheri – A. heliobelluomini – A. heyeri – A. hoogmoedi – A. hostilitractus – A. imperfectus – A. indistinctus – A. insipidus – A. iridescens – A. lancinii – A. lasallei – A. latifrons – A. lehmanni – A. loveridgei – A. macondo – A. maculatus – A. major – A. manizalesensis – A. mariselae – A. marthae – A. matthewi – A. medusa – A. melanogaster – A. melas – A. meridensis – A. micheleae – A. microrhynchus – A. mijaresi – A. modestus – A. multicinctus – A. multidentatus – A. nasutus – A. natans – A. nicefori – A. nigricaudus – A. nigriventris – A. obesus – A. obtusirostris – A. occidentalis – A. occipitoalbus – A. ochrosetrus – A. oculotemporalis – A. orcesi – A. paisa – A. pamplonensis – A. pantostictus – A. paraguayensis – A. paucidens – A. pauciscutatus – A. peruvianus – A. poeppigi – A. potschi – A. punctiventris – A. pyroni – A. resplendens – A. reticulatus – A. riveroi – A. ronnie – A. roulei – A. sanctaemartae – A. sanguineus – A. savagei – A. schach – A. serranus – A. snethlageae – A. spinalis – A. steyermarki – A. stygius – A. surucucu – A. tamaensis – A. tamessari – A. taphorni – A. tartarus – A. thalesdelemai – A. titanicus – A. torquatus – A. touzeti – A. trefauti – A. trihedrurus – A. trilineatus – A. trivittatus – A. turikensis – A. typhon – A. variegatus – A. ventrimaculatus – A. vertebralis – A. vertebrolineatus – A. vittatus – A. wagleri – A. werneri – A. zebrinus – A. zidoki
Name

Atractus Wagler, 1828: 741 [conserved name]

Type species: Atractus trilineatus Wagler, 1828, by monotypy.
Gender: masculine.
Place on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology by Opinion 2210 (2008: 239).

Synonyms

Brachyura Kuhl & van Hasselt, 1822: 101 [suppressed name]
Type species: Brachyorrhos kuhli Schlegel, 1826, by monotypy.
Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology by Opinion 2210 (2008: 239).

References
Primary references

Kuhl, H. & Van Hasselt, J.C. 1822. Uittreksels uit brieven van de Heeren Kuhl en van Hasselt, aan de Heeren C. J. Temminck, Th. van Swinderen en W. de Haan. Algemene Konst- en Letter-bode 7: 99–104.
Wagler, J. 1828. Auszüge aus seinem Systema Amphibiorum. Isis von Oken 21: 740–744. BHL
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2008. Opinion 2210 (Case 3365). Atractus Wagler, 1828 and Atractus trilineatus Wagler, 1828 (Reptilia, Serpentes): conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 65(3): 239–240. DOI: 10.21805/bzn.v65i3.a10 Paywall Reference page.

Additional references

Hoogmoed, M.S., 1980. Revision of the genus Atractus in Suriname, with the resurrection of two species (Colubridae, Reptilia). Notes on the herpetofauna of Suriname VII. Zool. Verh. Leiden, 175: 1–47. Full article: [1].
Passos, P.; Arredondo, J.C.; Fernandes, R.; Lynch, J.D. 2009: Three new Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Andes of Colombia. Copeia, 2009(3): 425–436. DOI: 10.1643/CH-08-063
Passos, P.; Fernandes, R.; Bérnils, R.S.; Moura-Leite, J.C., de 2010: Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa, 2364: 1–63. Preview
Passos, P.; Fuenmayor, G.R.; Barrio-Amorós, C. 2009: Description of two new species from Venezuela in the highly diverse dipsadine genus Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae). Amphibia-Reptilia, 30: 233–243. DOI: 10.1163/156853809788201199
Passos, P.; Mueses-Cisneros, J.J.; Lynch, J.D.; Fernandes, R. 2009: Pacific lowland snakes of the genus Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae), with description of three new species. Zootaxa, 2293: 1–34. Abstract & excerpt
Passos, P.; Lynch, J.D.; Fernandes, R. 2008: Taxonomic status of Atractus sanctaemartae and Atractus nebularis, and description of a new Atractus from the Atlantic coast of Colombia. Herpetological journal, 18: 175–186.
Passos, P. & Prudente, A.L.C. 2012. Morphological variation, polymorphism, and taxonomy of the Atractus torquatus complex (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 3407(1): 1–21. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3407.1.1 Paywall Reference page.
Passos, P., Ramos, L.O., Pinna, P.H. & Prudente, A.L.C. 2013. Morphological variation and affinities of the poorly known snake Atractus caxiuana (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 3745(1): 35–48. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3745.1.3 Paywall Reference page.
Prudente, A.L.C. & Passos, P. 2008. New species of Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from Guyana Plateau in northern Brazil. Journal of herpetology, 42: 723–732. PDF
Schargel, W.E., Lamar, W.W., Passos, P., Valencia, J.H., Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. & Campbell, J.A. 2013. A new giant Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Ecuador, with notes on some other large Amazonian congeners. Zootaxa 3721(5): 455–474. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3721.5.2 Reference page.
Arteaga, A., Mebert, K., Valencia, J.H., Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Peñafiel, N., Reyes-Puig, C., Vieira-Fernandes, J.L. & Guayasamin, J.M. 2017. Molecular phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa. ZooKeys 661: 91–123. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.661.11224 Open access Reference page.
Passos, P., Sudré, V., Doria, G. & Campbell, P.D. 2018. The taxonomic status of the “forgotten” Bolivian snakes, Atractus balzani Boulenger 1898 and Atractus maculatus (sensu Boulenger 1896) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 4438(1): 176–182. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4438.1.10 Paywall Reference page.

Links

Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Atractus . The Reptile Database. Accessed on 18 April 2021.

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This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (October 2021)
Atractus
Atractus species (a-f).jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Colubridae
Subfamily: Dipsadinae
Genus: Atractus
Wagler, 1828
Synonyms

Adelphicos, Brachyorrhos, Calamaria, Isoscelis, Rabdosoma, Rhegnops[1]

Atractus is a genus of colubrid ground snakes in the subfamily Dipsadinae. The genus includes more than 140 distinct species.[2]

Geographic range

Snakes of the genus Atractus are endemic to Central and South America.[1]
Description

In the genus Atractus the maxilla is short, with 8–12 teeth; the maxillary and mandibular teeth decrease in size posteriorly. The head is not distinct from the neck. The eye is small, with a round or subelliptic pupil. The nostril is between two nasal scales. The preocular is usually absent, and the loreal and prefrontal scales enter the orbit. The body is cylindrical. The dorsal scales are smooth, without apical pits, in 15 or 17 rows. The ventral scales are rounded. The tail can be either short or rather long. The subcaudals are paired.[1]
Reproduction

The genus Atractus is oviparous.[3]
Species

The following species are recognized as being valid.[3]

Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Atractus.

Atractus aboiporu Melo-Sampaio, Passos, Fouquet, Costa-Prudente & Torres-Carvajal, 2019
Atractus acheronius Passos, Rivas & Barrio-Amorós, 2009
Atractus akerios Melo‐Sampaio, Passos, Prudente, Venegas, & Torres‐Carvajal, 2021
Atractus albuquerquei Cunha & Nascimento, 1983 – Albuquerque ground snake[4]
Atractus alphonsehogei Cunha & Nascimento, 1983
Atractus altagratiae Passos & Fernandes, 2008
Atractus alytogrammus G. Köhler & Kieckbusch, 2014
Atractus andinus Prado, 1944
Atractus apophis Passos & J.D. Lynch, 2010
Atractus atlas Passos, Scanferla, Melo-Sampaio, Brito & Almendariz, 2018
Atractus atratus Passos & J.D. Lynch, 2010
Atractus attenuatus Myers & Schargel, 2006
Atractus avernus Passos et al., 2009
Atractus ayeush Esqueda, 2011
Atractus badius (F. Boie, 1827)
Atractus biseriatus Prado, 1941 – two-lined ground snake[5]
Atractus bocki F. Werner, 1909 – Bock's ground snake[6]
Atractus bocourti Boulenger, 1894 – Bocourt's ground snake[7][6]
Atractus boimirim Passos, Prudente, & Lynch, 2016
Atractus boulengerii Peracca, 1896
Atractus caete Passos et al., 2010
Atractus careolepis G. Köhler & Kieckbusch, 2014
Atractus carrioni Parker, 1930
Atractus caxiuana da Costa Prudente & Santos-Costa, 2006
Atractus cerberus Arteaga et al., 2017 – brown-and-yellow ground snake[8]
Atractus charitoae Silva Haad, 2004
Atractus chthonius Passos & J.D. Lynch, 2010
Atractus clarki Dunn & Bailey, 1939
Atractus collaris Peracca, 1896
Atractus crassicaudatus (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) – thickhead ground snake
Atractus dapsilis Melo-Sampaio, Passos, Fouquet, Costa-Prudente & Torres-Carvajal, 2019
Atractus dariensis Myers, 2003
Atractus depressiocellus Myers, 2003
Atracus duboisi (Boulenger, 1880)
Atractus duidensis Roze, 1961 – Venezuela ground snake
Atractus dunni Savage, 1955
Atractus echidna Passos et al., 2009
Atractus ecuadorensis Savage, 1955
Atractus edioi da Silva et al., 2005
Atractus elaps (Günther, 1858)
Atractus emigdioi Gonzalez-Sponga, 1971
Atractus emmeli (Boettger, 1888)
Atractus eriki Esqueda, La Marca & Bazó, 2007
Atractus erythromelas Boulenger, 1903
Atractus esepe Arteaga et al., 2017 – indistinct ground snake[8]
Atractus favae (de Filippi, 1840)
Atractus flammigerus (F. Boie, 1827)
Atractus franciscopaivai Silva Haad, 2004
Atractus francoi Passos et al., 2010
Atractus fuliginosus (Hallowell, 1845)
Atractus gaigeae Savage, 1955
Atractus gigas Myers & Schargel, 2006
Atractus guentheri (Wucherer, 1861)
Atractus heliobelluomini Silva Haad, 2004
Atractus heyeri Esqueda & McDiarmid, 2015
Atractus hoogmoedi Prudente & Passos, 2010
Atractus hostilitractus Myers, 2003
Atractus imperfectus Myers, 2003
Atractus indistinctus Prado, 1940
Atractus insipidus Roze, 1961
Atractus iridescens Peracca, 1896
Atractus lancinii Roze, 1961
Atractus lasallei Amaral, 1931
Atractus latifrons (Günther, 1868)
Atractus lehmanni Boettger, 1898
Atractus loveridgei Amaral, 1930
Atractus macondo Passos, J.D. Lynch & Fernandes, 2009
Atractus maculatus (Günther, 1858)
Atractus major Boulenger, 1894 – brown ground snake
Atractus manizalesensis Prado, 1940
Atractus mariselae Lancini, 1969
Atractus marthae Meneses-Pelayo & Passos, 2019
Atractus matthewi Markezich & Barrio-Amorós, 2004
Atractus medusa Passos et al., 2009
Atractus melanogaster F. Werner, 1916
Atractus melas Boulenger, 1908
Atractus meridensis Esqueda & La Marca, 2005
Atractus micheleae Esqueda & La Marca, 2005
Atractus microrhynchus (Cope, 1868)
Atractus mijaresi Esqueda & La Marca
Atractus modestus Boulenger, 1894 – modest ground snake
Atractus multicinctus (Jan, 1865)
Atractus multidentatus Passos, Rivas & Barrio-Amorós, 2009
Atractus nasutus Passos, Fernandes & J.D. Lynch, 2009
Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003
Atractus nawa Melo‐Sampaio, Passos, Prudente, Venegas, & Torres‐Carvajal, 2021
Atractus nicefori Amaral, 1930 – northern ground snake
Atractus nigricauda Schmidt & Walker, 1943
Atractus nigriventris Amaral, 1933
Atractus obesus Marx, 1960
Atractus obtusirostris F. Werner, 1916 – bignose ground snake
Atractus occidentalis Savage, 1955
Atractus occipitoalbus (Jan, 1862)
Atractus ochrosetrus Esqueda & La Marca, 2005
Atractus oculotemporalis Amaral, 1932
Atractus orcesi Savage, 1955
Atractus pachacamac Melo‐Sampaio, Passos, Prudente, Venegas, & Torres‐Carvajal, 2021
Atractus paisa Passos, Fernandes & J.D. Lynch, 2009
Atractus pamplonensis Amaral, 1937
Atractus pantostictus Fernandes & Puorto, 1993
Atractus paraguayensis F. Werner, 1924
Atractus paucidens Despax, 1910
Atractus pauciscutatus Schmidt & Walker, 1943 – little-scaled ground snake
Atractus peruvianus (Jan, 1862)
Atractus poeppigi (Jan, 1862) – basin ground snake
Atractus potschi Fernandes, 1995
Atractus punctiventris Amaral, 1933
Atractus pyroni Arteaga et al., 2017 – Pyron's ground snake[8]
Atractus resplendens F. Werner, 1901
Atractus reticulatus (Boulenger, 1885)
Atractus riveroi Roze, 1961 – Rivero's ground snake[6]
Atractus ronnie Passos, Fernandes & Borges-Nojosa, 2007
Atractus roulei Despax, 1910 – Roule's ground snake[6]
Atractus sanctaemartae Dunn, 1946
Atractus sanguineus Prado, 1944
Atractus savagei Salazar-Valenzuela, Torres-Carvajal, & Passos, 2014
Atractus schach (F. Boie, 1827)
Atractus serranus Amaral, 1930
Atractus snethlageae Cunha & Nascimento, 1983
Atractus spinalis Passos et al., 2013
Atractus steyermarki Roze, 1958
Atractus stygius Passos, Azevedo, Nogueira, Fernandes, and Sawaya, 2019
Atractus surucucu Prudente, 2008
Atractus tamaensis Esqueda & La Marca, 2005
Atractus tamessari Kok, 2006
Atractus taphorni Schargel & García-Pérez, 2002
Atractus tartarus Passos, Prudente, & Lynch, 2016
Atractus thalesdelemai Passos, Fernandes & Zanella, 2005
Atractus titanicus Passos, Fernandes & J.D. Lynch, 2009
Atractus torquatus (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
Atractus touzeti Schargel et al., 2013
Atractus trefauti Melo-Sampaio, Passos, Fouquet, Costa-Prudente & Torres-Carvajal, 2019
Atractus trihedrurus Amaral, 1926
Atractus trilineatus Wagler, 1828 – three-lined ground snake
Atractus trivittatus Amaral, 1933
Atractus turikensis Barros, 2000
Atractus typhon Passos et al., 2009
Atractus ukupacha Melo‐Sampaio, Passos, Prudente, Venegas, & Torres‐Carvajal, 2021
Atractus variegatus Prado, 1942
Atractus ventrimaculatus Boulenger, 1905
Atractus vertebralis Boulenger, 1904
Atractus vertebrolineatus Prado, 1941
Atractus vittatus Boulenger, 1894
Atractus wagleri Prado, 1945
Atractus werneri Peracca, 1914
Atractus zebrinus (Jan, 1862)
Atractus zidoki Gasc & Rodriques, 1979

References

Boulenger GA (1894). Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). xi + 382 pp. + Plates I-XX. (Genus Atractus, p. 300).
Köhler G, Kieckbusch M (2014). "Two new species of Atractus from Colombia (Reptilia, Squamata, Dipsadidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3872 (3): 291–300. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3872.3.5. PMID 25544086.
Genus Atractus at The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
Costa GC (2010). "Atractus albuquerquei ". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T176349A7223432. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T176349A7223432.en.
Arredondo, J.C.; Daza, J.; Gutierrez, P. (2015). "Atractus biseriatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T176350A44948201. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T176350A44948201.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
Beolens B, Watkins M, Grayson M (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Atractus bocki, p. 28; A. bocourti, p. 29; A. riveroi, p. 222; A. roulei, p. 227).
Aguilar, C.; Ines Hladki, A.; Lehr, E.; Ramírez Pinilla, M.; Urbina, N. (2016). "Atractus bocourti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T176351A44878165. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T176351A44878165.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.

Arteaga A, Mebert K, Valencia JH, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Peñafiel N, Reyes-Puig C, Vieira-Fernandes JL, Guayasamin JM (2017). "Molecular Phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa". Zookeys 661: 91-123. https://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=11224

Further reading

Freiberg M (1982). Snakes of South America. Hong Kong: T.F.H. Publications. 189 pp. ISBN 0-87666-912-7. (Genus Atractus, pp. 89–92).
Passos P, Fernandes R, Bérnils RS, Moura-Leite JC de (2010). "Taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes: Dipdadidae)". Zootaxa 2364: 1-63.
Wagler [JG] (1828). "Auszüge aus seinem [sic] Systema Amphibiorum". Isis von Oken 21: 740-744. (Atractus, new genus, pp. 741–742). (in German and Latin).

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