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Bibron's Coral Snake

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Elapoidea

Familia: Elapidae
Subfamilia: Elapinae
Genus: Calliophis
Species: Calliophis bibroni
Name

Calliophis bibroni (Jan, 1858)

Holotype: MNHN 5070, indet.

Type locality: “Indes orientales [=India]”; restricted to “Western Ghats” by Deepak, Harikrishnan, Vasudevan & Smith (2010: 1).
Combinations

Elaps bibroni Jan, 1858: 526 [original combination]
Callophis bibroni — Boulenger, 1890: 386 [name combination, genus misspelling]

Synonyms

Elaps cerasinus Beddome, 1864: 179 [synonymised by Boulenger (1890: 386)]

Holotype: BMNH 74.4.29.51, ♀.

Type locality: “Manantoddy (Malabar) [=Waynaad district, Kerala]”, India.
References
Primary references

Jan, G. 1858. Plan d’une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces de serpents. Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée Série 2, 10: 438–449; 514–527. BHL (part I) BHL (part II) Reference page.
Beddome, R.H. 1864. Description of a new species of Elaps from Malabar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864: 179–180. BHL Reference page.
Boulenger, G.A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis: London. xviii + 541 pp. BHL Reference page.
Deepak, V., Harikrishnan, S., Vasudevan, K. & Smith, E.N. 2010. Redescription of Bibron's coral snake, Calliophis bibroni Jan 1858 with notes and new records from south of the Palghat and Shencottah Gaps of the Western Ghats, India. Hamadryad 35(1): 1–10. Full article (ResearchGate) Reference page.

Additional references

Shanker, P.G. & Ganesh, S.R. 2009. Sighting record and range extension of Calliophis (= Callophis) bibroni, Jan 1858 (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpents, Elapidae). The Herpetological Bulletin 108: 10–13. Full article (PDF)
Erinjery, J.J., Das, S., Muthuvarmadam, R.S. & Singh, M. 2014. Record of the Rare Bibron's Coral Snake Calliophis bibroni from Nelliyampathy Hills, Kerala, India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 111(1): 51. DOI: 10.17087/bnhs/2014/v111i1/56536
Raveendran, D.K., Deepak, V., Smith, E.N. & Smart, U. 2017. A new colour morph of Calliophis bibroni (Squamata: Elapidae) and evidence for Müllerian mimicry in Tropical Indian coralsnakes. Herpetology Notes 10: 209–217. Full article (PDF)

Links

Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Calliophis bibroni. The Reptile Database. Accessed on 31 July 2017.
Srinivasulu, C., Deepak, V., Shankar, G. & Srinivasulu, B. 2011. IUCN: Calliophis bibroni (Least Concern). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T177549A7454847. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T177549A7454847.en

Vernacular names
English: Bibron's Coral Snake

Calliophis bibroni, commonly known as Bibron's coral snake, is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae. The species is native to India.

Etymology

The specific name, bibroni, is in honor of Gabriel Bibron (1806–1848), French zoologist and herpetologist.[4]
Distribution and habitat

C. bibroni is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, essentially distributed in southern Karnataka state, Kerala state, and northwestern Tamil Nadu state.[3] The preferred natural habitat of C. bibroni is wet forest, at elevations of 1–1,220 m (3 ft 3 in–4,002 ft 7 in).[1]

In August 2013, a dead specimen was discovered on the highway passing through Mudumalai National Park at an elevation of 894 m (2,933 ft).[5]
Description

The eye of C. bibroni is minute, its diameter about half its distance from the mouth. The frontal is nearly as long as its distance from the snout, much shorter than parietals. As there is no preocular, the prefrontal contacts the third upper labial. There is one very small postocular. The temporals are 1+1. There are seven upper labials, the third and fourth contacting the eye. The first lower labial is much elongate, forming a long suture with its fellow. There are two pairs of chin shields. The anterior chin shields are small, much shorter than posterior, and are in contact with third and fourth lower labials.[2]

The dorsal scales are smooth, without apical pits, and are in 13 rows at midbody. The ventrals number 222-226. The anal is entire. The subcaudals are divided and number 27-34 pairs.[2]

Coloration is cherry-red to dark purplish brown above, red beneath, with black crossbands which are sometimes continuous across the belly. The anterior part of the head is black above.[2]

Adults may attain a total length of 64 cm (25 inches), which includes a tail length of 5 cm (2 inches).[2]
Diet

C. bibroni is ophiophagous, specializing in preying upon snakes of the family Uropeltidae.[1]
Reproduction

C. bibroni is oviparous.[3]
References

Srinivasulu, C.; Deepak, V.; Shankar, G. & Srinivasulu, B. (2011). "Calliophis bibroni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T177549A7454847. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
Boulenger GA (1896). Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History), Volume III., Containing the Colubridæ (Opisthoglyphæ and Proteroglyphæ) ... London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I–XXV. (Callophis [sic] bibronii, p. 399).
Species Calliophis bibroni at The Reptile Database www.reptile-database.org.
Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Calliophis bibroni, p. 25).

Samson, A.; Ramakrishnan, B.; Rathinakumar, S.; Renuka, S.; Santhoshkumar, P. & Karthick, S. (2014). "Calliophis bibroni (Bibroni Coral Snake): Rediscovery in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, South India". Herpetological Bulletin. 127: 35–36.

Further reading

Beddome RH (1864). "Description of a New Species of Elaps from Malabar". Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864: 179.
Boulenger GA (1890). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. London: Secretary of State for India in Council. (Taylor and Francis, printers). xviii + 541 pp. (Callophis [sic] bibronii, p. 386).
Deepak V, Harikrishnan S, Vasudevan K, Smith EN (2010). "Redescription of Bibron's coral snake, Calliophis bibroni Jan 1858 with notes and new records from south of the Palghat and Shencottah Gaps of the Western Ghats, India". Hamadryad 35 (1): 1–10.
Jan G (1858). "Plan d'une iconographie descriptive des ophidiens et description sommaire de nouvelles espèces des serpents". Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée, Paris, Series 2, 10: 438–449, 514–527. (Elaps bibroni, new species, p. 526). (in French).
Raveendran DK, Deepak V, Smith EN, Smart U (2017). "A new colour morph of Calliophis bibroni (Squamata: Elapidae) and evidence for Müllerian mimicry in Tropical Indian coralsnakes". Herpetology Notes 10: 209–217.
Slowinski JB, Boundy J, Lawson R (2001). "The Phylogenetic Relationships of Asian Coral Snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) Based on Morphological and Molecular Characters". Herpetologica 57 (2): 233–245.
Smith MA (1943). The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III.—Serpentes. London: Secretary of State for India. (Taylor and Francis, printers). xii + 583 pp. (Callophis [sic] bibroni, pp. 425–426).

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