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Crocodylus moreletii (*)

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subdivisio: Pseudosuchia
Superordo: Crocodylomorpha
Ordo: Crocodilia
Subordo: Eusuchia

Familia: Crocodylidae
Subfamilia: Crocodylinae
Genus: Crocodylus
Species: Crocodylus moreletii
Name

Crocodylus moreletii Duméril & Bibron, 1851

Etymology: Named after the French naturalist who made the discovery, Pierre Marie Arthur Morelet

Type locality: "Lac Flores (Yucatan)," Guatemala; restricted by Smith and Taylor (1950: 211), and Smith and Taylor (1950: 318) to "Guatemala, El Peten, Laguna de Peten

Holotype: Syntypes MNHN 7520
Synonyms

Crocodilus Moreletii Duméril & Bibron, 1851
Alligator lacordairei Preudhomme de Borre, 1869 (fide Günther, 1885)
Crocodylus americanus var. moreletii — Günther 1885
Crocodylus moreletii — King & Burke, 1989
Crocodylus moreletii — Navarro Serment, 2004

References

Duméril 1852. Archiv. Mus. Hist. Nat. 6: 254
Duméril, A.M.C. & A. H. A. DUMÉRIL 1851. "Catalogue méthodique de la collection des reptiles du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Gide et Baudry/Roret, Paris," 224 pp.
Crocodylus moreletii at the New Reptile Database. Accessed on 16 August 2009.
IUCN: Crocodylus moreletii Duméril & Bibron, 1851 (Conservation Dependent)
Crocodylus moreletii Duméril & Bibron, 1851 – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Beulenkrokodil
English: Belize Crocodile, Morelet's Crocodile, Central American Crocodile
español: Cocodrilo De Morelet
suomi: Kyhmykrokotiili
français: Crocodile De Morelet
polski: Krokodyl meksykański
português: Crocodilo-de-Morelet, Crocodilo-mexicano

Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), also known as the Mexican crocodile, is a modest-sized crocodilian found only in fresh waters of the Atlantic regions of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala.[2][4] It usually grows to about 3 metres (10 ft) in length. It is a Least Concern species. The species has a fossil record in Guatemala.[5]

Taxonomy and etymology

Morelet's crocodile was first described in 1850 in Mexico by the French naturalist Pierre Marie Arthur Morelet. The species was subsequently named after him.[6][7] It was long confused with the American and Cuban crocodiles because of similar characteristics and an ambiguous type locality. It was not generally accepted as a separate species until the 1920s.
Evolution

The genus Crocodylus likely originated in Africa and radiated outwards towards Southeast Asia and the Americas,[8] although an Australia/Asia origin has also been considered.[9] Phylogenetic evidence supports Crocodylus diverging from its closest recent relative, the extinct Voay of Madagascar, around 25 million years ago, near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary.[8]
Phylogeny

Below is a cladogram based on a 2018 tip dating study by Lee & Yates simultaneously using morphological, molecular (DNA sequencing), and stratigraphic (fossil age) data,[10] as revised by the 2021 Hekkala et al. paleogenomics study using DNA extracted from the extinct Voay.[8]

Crocodylinae

Voay

Crocodylus

Crocodylus anthropophagus

Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni

Crocodylus palaeindicus

Crocodylus Tirari Desert

Asia+Australia

Crocodylus johnstoni Freshwater crocodile Freshwater crocodile white background.jpg

Crocodylus novaeguineae New Guinea crocodile

Crocodylus mindorensis Philippine crocodile

Crocodylus porosus Saltwater crocodile Crocodylus porosus white background.jpg

Crocodylus siamensis Siamese crocodile Siamese Crocodile white background.jpg

Crocodylus palustris Mugger crocodile Mugger crocodile white background.jpg

Africa+New World

Crocodylus checchiai

Crocodylus falconensis

Crocodylus suchus West African crocodile

Crocodylus niloticus Nile crocodile Nile crocodile white background.jpg

New World

Crocodylus moreletii Morelet's crocodile

Crocodylus rhombifer Cuban crocodile Cuban crocodile white background.jpg

Crocodylus intermedius Orinoco crocodile

Crocodylus acutus American crocodile American crocodile white background.jpg


Characteristics

Morelet's crocodile has a very broad snout with 66 to 68 teeth when they are fully mature. They are dark grayish-brown in color with dark bands and spots on the body and the tail. This is similar to other crocodiles, like the American crocodile, but the Morelet is somewhat darker. Juvenile crocodiles are bright yellow with some dark bands. The crocodile's iris is silvery brown. They have four short legs, giving them a rather sprawling gait, and a long tail, which is used for swimming. The hind feet of the crocodiles are webbed. They have very explosive capabilities because of their strong muscles and are fast runners.[6]
Size

Morelet's crocodile is small compared to most other crocodiles. The males can become larger than the females. The average adult Morelet's crocodile is about 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in), with a typical length range of 1.5 to 2.7 m (4 ft 11 in to 8 ft 10 in) (the lower measurement representing the mean total length of a female at sexual maturity which is attained at roughly 7–8 years of age in the wild).[11][12] Almost all crocodiles in excess of 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) are males and at this advanced stage of maturity, the male goes through a significant change in skull osteological morphology as the skull appears to increase in broadness and robustness.[13] Large adult males can attain a length of 3 m (10 ft), anything in excess of this is considered exceptionally rare for this species however the species has a maximum reported length of 4.5 m (14 ft 9 in), with two other outsized specimens reportedly measuring 4.1 and 4.3 m (13 ft 5 in and 14 ft 1 in), respectively.[12][14][15] Body mass in this species is often around 68–113 kg (150–249 lb), however this may include possibly overweight captive specimen and average adult body mass in wild adults from Belize was posited as approximately 58 kg (127+3⁄4 lb). The weight of a large 3 m (10 ft) wild male crocodile is estimated to average 150 kg (330+3⁄4 lb) in although mass is likely much more in outsized individuals.[12][16] Overall, this species is similar in appearance and morphology to the Cuban and the larger American crocodiles.
Distribution and habitat
at Lago Cobá, Quintana Roo, Mexico
at Schönbrunn Zoo, Vienna

Morelet's crocodile can be found in freshwater habitats in Central America and along the Gulf of Mexico stretching through Belize, Guatemala, and to Mexico.[17] The Belizean pine forests are an example of the type of ecoregion in which they occur.[18]

In their freshwater habitats, they prefer isolated areas that are secluded. This species of crocodile can mainly be found in freshwater swamps and marshes which are located inland, and in large rivers and lakes.[19] Both of these habitats are forested to help add cover.[6]

The Morelet can also be found along the coast in brackish waters[2] and the grassy savannas on the Yucatán Peninsula.[20] These crocodiles become much more distributed during the rainy seasons when flooding occurs and it is easier for them to move elsewhere.[20]

Juvenile crocodiles live in very dense cover to protect them from other predators that might be in the area and will remain there until they become older and able to fend for themselves. Adult crocodiles are known to dig out burrows during dry seasons in their area.[6] The range of this crocodile can overlap with the American crocodile, which can sometimes lead to them being confused with one another.

Recently, the Morelet's crocodile has been introduced into the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo in Mexico).[21] Several newspaper outlets on the Mexican side of the border report of reptiles inhabiting the river appearing not to be the American alligator which is native to Texas, but the Morelet's crocodile which is native to Tamaulipas from San Fernando southward.[22][23] Crocodiles have been seen in the cities of Matamoros,[24][25][26] Reynosa[27][28][29][30][31][32] and as far north as Nuevo Laredo.[33][34] The sightings have prompted several municipal police departments to put up signs warning people about entering the river.[35]
Biology and behavior
Morelet's crocodile waiting for an ambush
Hunting and diet

Like most crocodilians, Morelet's crocodiles are highly opportunistic and will prey on practically anything that they can overpower that comes in their territories.[36] Juvenile crocodiles feed largely on fish and insects until they become bigger and more capable of bringing down larger prey.[19] Adults largely prey on small mammals, birds, and other reptiles as well as gastropods, crustaceans and other invertebrates.[15][36] These small mammals can include domesticated animals like cats and dogs. Large specimens have been shown to be able to overtake large prey. Dogs and goats have been taken by this species, including a record of a 2.9 m (9 ft 6 in) adult killing an English sheepdog which weighed at least 35 kg (77 lb).[37] Adults have also been recorded eating even larger animals, including adult and nearly-grown cattle and an adult tapir, although these have been cases of scavenging on caracasses, with the tapir having been killed by a jaguar (it is possible that the jaguar was present when the crocodile fed).[38] Crocodiles have been known to be cannibalistic towards smaller specimens. Although previously thought to be inoffensive, there have been recent reports that the species has attacked humans on multiple occasions and at least 12 documented human fatalities have occurred.[39] Despite the relatively small size of the species, large adult Morelet's are aggressive and easily capable of overpowering an unaware human near the water. Due to partial consumption, recorded fatal attacks are likely predatory rather than defensive in nature.[40][41][42]
Reproduction
Six-month-old, at Tiergarten Schönbrunn
Baby Morelet's crocodiles at the Cotswold Wildlife Park, England

Breeding usually takes place between April and June[20] and the eggs are laid before the start of the rainy season. Morelet's crocodiles are unique among North American crocodiles in that they build mound nests only, and not mound and hole nests. These mound nests are about 3 m (10 ft) wide and 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high and can be found near the water or on floating vegetation. A female crocodile can lay between 20 and 45 eggs and nests have been found containing eggs from more than one female. The eggs are buried and the nests are guarded by females. The eggs usually hatch after 80 days of incubation[20] and hatchlings are normally about 17 cm (6+1⁄2 in) long.[4] After the eggs have hatched the female crocodile will carry her young to the water where they are protected by both parents and will later leave them to fend for themselves. Females are highly protective of their young and have reportedly been observed to aggressively displace intruders and humans if distress calls of the baby crocodiles are heard and even father crocodiles have been observed to spring to the defense of young crocodiles.[43][44] In captivity, juvenile crocodiles are treated aggressively by adult crocodiles but never hatchlings.[45]
Conservation

Morelet's crocodile has long been threatened by habitat destruction and illegal hunting.[46] Both of these factors have significantly lowered their populations. It was hunted for its hide during the 1940s and 1950s[46] because high-quality leather can be made from their skins.[47][48]
References

Rio, Jonathan P.; Mannion, Philip D. (6 September 2021). "Phylogenetic analysis of a new morphological dataset elucidates the evolutionary history of Crocodylia and resolves the long-standing gharial problem". PeerJ. 9: e12094. doi:10.7717/peerj.12094.
Cedeño-Vázquez, J. R.; Platt, S. G. & Thorbjarnarson, J. (2012). "Crocodylus moreletii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T5663A3045579. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T5663A3045579.en.
"Crocodylus moreletii ". The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
"Crocodilians species (CSG)". Archived from the original on 2009-07-26.
"Crocodylus moreletii Dumeril and Bibron 1851 (Morelet's crocodile)". PBDB.
Britton, Adam (2009). "Crocodylus moreletii (BIBRON & DUMERIL, 1851)". Crocodilians Natural History and Conservation. Howard Springs, Australia.
Beolens, B.; Watkins, M.; Grayson, M. (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Crocodylus moreletii, pp. 182-183).
Hekkala, E.; Gatesy, J.; Narechania, A.; Meredith, R.; Russello, M.; Aardema, M. L.; Jensen, E.; Montanari, S.; Brochu, C.; Norell, M.; Amato, G. (2021-04-27). "Paleogenomics illuminates the evolutionary history of the extinct Holocene "horned" crocodile of Madagascar, Voay robustus". Communications Biology. 4 (1): 505. doi:10.1038/s42003-021-02017-0. ISSN 2399-3642. PMC 8079395. PMID 33907305.
Oaks, Jamie R. (2011). "A time-calibrated species tree of Crocodylia reveals a recent radiation of the true crocodiles". Evolution. 65 (11): 3285–3297. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01373.x. PMID 22023592. S2CID 7254442.
Michael S. Y. Lee; Adam M. Yates (27 June 2018). "Tip-dating and homoplasy: reconciling the shallow molecular divergences of modern gharials with their long fossil". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 285 (1881). doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.1071. PMC 6030529. PMID 30051855.
Guggisberg, C.A.W. (1972). Crocodiles: Their Natural History, Folklore, and Conservation. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 195. ISBN 0-7153-5272-5.
Platt, S. G., Rainwater, T. R., Thorbjarnarson, J. B., Finger, A. G., Anderson, T. A., & McMurry, S. T. (2009). Size estimation, morphometrics, sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism, and biomass of Morelet’s crocodile in northern Belize. Caribbean Journal of Science, 45(1), 80-93.
Barrios-Quiroz, G., Casas-Andreu, G., & Escobedo-Galván, A. H. (2012). Sexual size dimorphism and allometric growth of Morelet's crocodiles in captivity. Zoological Science, 29(3), 198-203.
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xDv1w_izIJA
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Marlin, J. A., Marlin, K. K., & Platt, S. G. (1995). A documented case of an attack by Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) on man. Bull Chicago Herp Soc, 30, 165-167.
Sideleau, B., & Britton, A. R. C. (2012). A preliminary analysis of worldwide crocodilian attacks. In Crocodiles Proceedings of the 21st Working Meeting of the IUCN-SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN (pp. 111-114).
Álvarez del Toro, M. and Sigler L. (2001). Los Crocodylia de México. IMRNR-PROFEPA: México, D.F.
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Espinosa, Eduardo (1998). "Crocodylus Moreletii." Florida Museum. ISBN 9782831704418.
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King, F. ""The Crocodile Specialist Group." Crocodile Specialist Group. 4 Mar. 2002". Archived from the original on 2007-12-28.

"Crocodile Sighting in Corpus Christi"
"Species Name" Morelets Crocodile; Outcome: Fatal"—CrocBITE Live Feed

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