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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Viperoidea

Familia: Viperidae
Subfamilia: Crotalinae
Genus: Gloydius
Species (20): G. angusticeps – G. blomhoffii – G. brevicaudus – G. caraganus – G. caucasicus – G. cognatus – G. halys – G. himalayanus – G. intermedius – G. lijianlii – G. liupanensis – G. monticola – G. qinlingensis – G. rickmersi – G. rubromaculatus – G. shedaoensis – G. stejnegeri – G. strauchi – G. tsushimaensis – G. ussuriensis

Gloydius Hoge & Romano-Hoge, 1981: 194 [nomen substitutum]

Type species: Trigonocephalus halys Boie, 1827 [= Coluber halys Pallas, 1776], by original designation.

Halys Gray, 1849: 14 [as subgenus of Trigonocephalus, preoccupied by Halys Fabricius, 1803]

Type species: Trigonocephalus halys Boie, 1827 [= Coluber halys Pallas, 1776], by subsequent designation.
Primary references

Gray, J.E. 1849. Catalogue of the specimens of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Edward Newman: London. i–xv, 1–125. BHL
Hoge, A.R. & Romano-Hoge, S.A.R.W.L. [1978–1979] 1981. Poisonous snakes of the world. Part I. Check list of the pit vipers, Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae. Memórias do Instituto Butantan 42/43: 179–309.

Additional references

Xu, Y., Liu, Q., Myers, E.A., Wang, L., Huang, S., He, Y., Peng, P.-H. & Guo, P. 2012. Molecular Phylogeny of the Genus Gloydius (Serpentes: Crotalinae). Asian Herpetological Research 3(2): 127–132. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1245.2012.00127 Reference page.
Wagner, P., Tiutenko, A., Mazepa, G., Borkin, L.J. & Simonov, E. 2016. Alai! Alai! – a new species of the Gloydius halys (Pallas, 1776) complex (Viperidae, Crotalinae), including a brief review of the complex. Amphibia-Reptilia 37(1): 15–31. DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00003026 Reference page.
Shi, J.-S., Yang, D.-W., Zhang, W.-Y., Qi, S., Li, P.-P. & Ding, L. 2016. Distribution and Infraspecies Taxonomy of Gloydius halys-Gloydius intermedius Complex in China (Serpentes: Crotalinae) (In Chinese with English summary). Chinese Journal of Zoology 51(5): 777–798. DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.201605008 Reference page.
Shi, J.-S., Wang, G., Chen, X., Fang, Y., Ding, L., Huang, S., Hou, M., Liu, J. & Li, P. 2017. A New Moth-preying Alpine Pit Viper Species from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Viperidae, Crotalinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 38(4): 517–532. DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00003134 Reference page.
Shi, J.-S., Yang, D., Zhang, W.-Y., Peng, L., Orlov, N.L., Jiang, F., Ding, L., Hou, M., Huang, X., Huang, S. & Li, P. 2018. A New Species of the Gloydius strauchi Complex (Crotalinae: Viperidae: Serpentes) from Qinghai, Sichuan, and Gansu, China. Russian Journal of Herpetology 25(2): 126–138. DOI: 10.30906/1026-2296-2019-25-%25s-126-138 Reference page.


Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Gloydius . The Reptile Database. Accessed on 1 May 2019.

Vernacular names
English: Asian Ground Pitvipers
日本語: マムシ属

Gloydius is a genus of venomous pitvipers endemic to Asia, also known as Asian moccasins or Asian ground pit vipers. Named after American herpetologist Howard K. Gloyd,[2] this genus is very similar to the North American genus Agkistrodon. 24 species are currently recognized.[3]

Geographic range

Species of Gloydius are found in Russia, east of the Ural Mountains through Siberia, Iran, Himalayas from Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Korea, Japan and the Ryukyu Islands.[1]
Species[3] Taxon author[3] Subsp.*[3] Common name[4] Geographic range[1]
G. angusticeps Shi, Yang, Huang Orlov, & Li, 2018 0 Zoige pit viper China, (Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu).
G. blomhoffii (Stejneger, 1907) 3 Japanese mamushi Japan.
G. brevicauda (H. Boie, 1826) 0 Short-tailed mamushi North Korea, South Korea, and China.
G. caraganus (Eichwald, 1831) 0 Karaganda pitviper Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.
G. caucasicus (Nikolsky, 1916) 0 Caucasian pitviper Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, and Afghanistan.
G. changdaoensis Li, 1999 0 China.
G. cognatus (Gloyd, 1977) 0 Alashan pitviper China.
G. halysT (Pallas, 1776) 4 Siberian pitviper Russia, east of the Ural Mountains through Siberia, Iran, Mongolia to northern and central China, as well as the southern Ryukyu Islands.
G. himalayanus (Günther, 1864) 0 Himalayan pitviper Along the southern slopes of the Himalayas from northeastern Pakistan, to northern India (Kashmir, Punjab) and Nepal. Found at 1524–3048 m altitude.
G. huangi Wang, Ren, Dong, Jiang, Shi, Siler, & Che, 2019 0 Lancang Plateau viper Tibet.
G. intermedius (Strauch, 1868) 2 Central Asian pitviper Southeastern Azerbaijan, northern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, northwestern Afghanistan, southern Russia, northwestern China and Mongolia.
G. lipipengi Shi, Liu, Giri, Owens, Santra, Kuttalam, Selvan, Guo, & Malhotra, 2021 0 Nujiang pit viper China.
G. liupanensis Liu, Song, & Luo, 1989 0 Gansu, China.
G. monticola (F. Werner, 1922) 0 Likiang pitviper The mountains of northern Yunnan in China.
G. qinlingensis Song & Chen, 1985 0 Shaanxi, China.
G. rickmersi Wagner, Tiutenko, Borkin, & Simonov, 2015 Kyrgyzstan
G. rubromaculatus Shi, Wang, Chen, Fang, Ding, Huang, Hou, Liu, & Li, 2017 0 Tibetan Plateau.
G. saxatilis (Emelianov, 1937) 0 Rock mamushi[5] Russia (eastern Siberia), northeastern China and North and South Korea.
G. shedaoensis (Zhao, 1979) 0 Shedao island pitviper Shedao Island, off the coast of Liaotung, China.
G. stejnegeri (Rendahl, 1933) 0 Gobi pitviper China and Mongolia.
G. strauchi (Bedriaga, 1912) 0 Strauch's pitviper The Tibetan Plateau in the provinces of Tsinghai and western Szechwan, China.
G. swild Shi, Liu, Giri, Owens, Santra, Kuttalam, Selvan, Guo, & Malhotra, 2021 0 China.
G. tsushimaensis (Isogawa, Moriya & Mitsui, 1994) 0 Tsushima Island pitviper Tsushima Island, Japan.
G. ussuriensis (Emelianov, 1929) 0 Ussuri mamushi Far east Russia (Primorskiy Kray), northeastern China, North and South Korea, as well as Quelpart Island.

*) Not including the nominate subspecies.
T) Type species.

Due to the strong morphological similarity, these snakes were classified in the genus Agkistrodon until very recently. However, by 1999 cladistic studies clearly showed that Agkistrodon did not form a clade (indeed, it was not even paraphyletic) and was thus split into several genera.

A new species, G. tsushimaensis, was described by Isogawa, Moriya & Mitsui (1994). It is referred to as the Tsushima island pitviper and is found only on Tsushima Island, Japan.

McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré TA (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Gloydius, p. 102).
"Gloydius ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 17 October 2006.
Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S (2004). Asian Pitvipers. First Edition. Berlin: Geitje Books. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.

Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp., 52 plates. LCCN 89-50342. ISBN 0-916984-20-6.

Further reading

Hoge AR, Romano-Hoge SA (1981). "Poisonous Snakes of the World. I. Checklist of the Pitvipers: Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae". Memórias do Instituto Butantan 42/43: 179-309. (Gloydius, new genus).
Isogawa, Kiyoshi; Moriya, Akira; Mitsui, Sadaaki (1994). "A new snake from the genus Agkistrodon (Serpentes: Viperidae) from Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture". Japanese J. Herpetol. 15: 101-111. (Agkistrodon tsushimaensis, new species).


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