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Masticophis flagellum

Masticophis flagellum (Source)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Reptilia
Subclassis: Diapsida
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Superfamilia: Colubroidea
Familia: Colubridae
Subfamilia: Colubrinae
Genus: Masticophis
Species: Masticophis flagellum
Subspecies: M. f. cingulum - M. f. flagellum - M. f. fuliginosus - M. f. lineatulus - M. f. piceus - M. f. ruddocki - M. f. testaceus


Masticophis flagellum (Shaw, 1802)


* Coluber Flagellum Shaw, 1802: 475
* Psammophis flavigularis Hallowell, 1852
* Herpetodryas flagelliformis — Duméril & Bibron, 1854: 210
* Zamenis flagelliformis — Boulenger, 1893: 389
* Coluber flagellum flagellum — Burt, 1935
* Coluber flagellum flavi-gularis — Burt, 1935
* Masticophis flagellum — Stebbins, 1985: 181
* Masticophis flagellum flagellum — Conant & Collins, 1991: 186
* Masticophis flagellum — Liner, 1994


* Shaw, G. 1802: General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 1 + 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615.
* Stebbins, R.C. 1985: A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
* Liner, Ernest A. 2007: A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60.
* Masticophis flagellum at the New Reptile Database. Accessed on 21 sep 2008.

Vernacular names
English: Coachwhip

Masticophis flagellum is a species of nonvenomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as coachwhips or whip snakes. There are seven recognized subspecies.

Geographical range

Coachwhips range throughout the southern United States from coast to coast. They are also found in the northern half of Mexico. Typically they are found in open grassland type habitat, but can also be found in lightly forested areas.


Coachwhips are thin-bodied snakes with small heads and large eyes with round pupils. They vary greatly in color, but most reflect a proper camouflage for their natural habitat. M. f. testaceus is typically a shade of light brown with darker brown flecking, but in the western area of Texas, where the soil color is a shade of pink, the coachwhips are also pink in color. M. f. piceus was given its common name because specimens frequently have some red in their coloration, but this is not always so. Coachwhip scales are patterned so at first glance, the snake appears braided. Subspecies can be difficult to distinguish in areas where their ranges overlap. Adult sizes of over 160 cm (63 in) are not uncommon.


Coachwhips are a diurnal snake, and actively hunt and eat lizards, small birds, and rodents. They tend to be high-strung, and often bolt at the first sign of a potential threat. They are extremely fast moving snakes. Coachwhips are oviparous. They are curious snakes with good eyesight, and are sometimes seen raising their heads above the level of the grass or rocks to see what is around them.


* Sonoran Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum cingulum (Lowe & Woodin, 1954)
* Eastern Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum flagellum (Shaw, 1802)
* Baja California Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum fuliginosus (Cope, 1895)
* Lined Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum lineatulus (Smith, 1941)
* Red Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum piceus (Cope, 1892)
* San Joaquin Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum ruddocki (Brattstrom & Warren, 1953)
* Western Coachwhip, Masticophis flagellum testaceus (Say, 1823)


The primary myth concerning coachwhips is that they chase people. This likely arises from the snake and the person both being frightened, and both just happen to be going the same way to escape. Coachwhips are fast snakes, often moving faster than a human, and thus give an impression of aggression should they move toward the person.

The legend of the hoop snake may refer to the coachwhip snakes.

Another myth of the rural southeastern United States is of a snake that, when disturbed, would chase a person down, wrap him up in its coils, whip him to death with its tail, and then make sure he is dead by sticking its tail up the victim's nose to see if he is still breathing. In actuality, coachwhips are nowhere near strong enough to overpower a person, and they do not whip with their tails, even though it is long and looks very much like a whip. Their bites can be painful, but harmless.


* Austin Reptile Service, Common Snake Myths
* Species Masticophis flagellum at The Reptile Database

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License