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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea

Familia: Dipsadidae
Subfamilia: Dipsadinae
Genus: Phalotris
Species (15): P. bilineatus – P. concolor – P. cuyanus – P. labiomaculatus – P. lativittatus – P. lemniscatus – P. matogrossensis – P. mertensi – P. multipunctatus – P. nasutus – P. nigrilatus – P. normanscotti – P. reticulatus – P. sansebastiani – P. tricolor

Phalotris Cope, 1862: 524

Type species: Elapomorphus tricolor Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 by subsequent designation by Dunn & Dunn (1940: 75).

Primary references

Cope, E.D. [1861] 1862. On Elapomorphus, Sympholis, and Coniophanes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13: 524. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Ferrarezzi, H. 1993. Nota sobre o gênero Phalotris com a revisão do grupo nasutus e descrição de três novas espécies (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Memórias do Instituto Butantan 55(1): 21–38. Reference page.
Puorto, G. & Ferrarezzi, H. 1993. Uma nova espécie de Phalotris Cope, 1862, com comentários sobre o grupo bilineatus (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Memórias do Instituto Butantan 55(1): 39–46. Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Lema, T., D’Agostini, F.M. & Cappellari, L.H. 2005. Nova espécie de Phalotris, redescrição de P. tricolor e osteologia craniana (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae). Iheringia. Série Zoologia 95(1): 65–78. DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212005000100010 Reference page.
Jansen, M. & Köhler, G. 2008. A new species of Phalotris from the eastern lowlands of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88(1): 103–110. Reference page.
Hamdan, B., Silva Jr., N.J. & Silva, H.L.R. 2013. Redescription of Phalotris labiomaculatus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Elapomorphini), with notes on the taxonomic boundaries within the nasutus group. Zootaxa 3693(2): 182–188. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3693.2.4 Paywall Reference page.


Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Phalotris . The Reptile Database. Accessed on 21 June 2018.

Phalotris is a genus of snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae.

Geographic range

All species of the genus Phalotris are found in South America.[1]

The following 14 species are recognized as being valid.[1]

Phalotris concolor Ferrarezzi, 1993
Phalotris cuyanus (Cei, 1984)
Phalotris labiomaculatus de Lema, 2002
Phalotris lativittatus Ferrarezzi, 1993
Phalotris lemniscatus (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
Phalotris matogrossensis de Lema, D'Agostini & Cappellari, 2005
Phalotris mertensi (Hoge, 1955)
Phalotris multipunctatus Puorto & Ferrarezzi, 1993
Phalotris nasutus (Gomes, 1915)
Phalotris nigrilatus Ferrarezzi, 1993
Phalotris normanscotti Cabral & Cacciali, 2015
Phalotris reticulatus (W. Peters, 1860)
Phalotris sansebastiani Jansen & G. Köhler, 2008
Phalotris tricolor (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)

Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Phalotris.

The specific name, mertensi, is in honor of German herpetologist Robert Mertens.[2]

The specific name, normanscotti, is in honor of Norman Scott, Jr., in recognition of his contribution to the knowledge of the herpetofauna of Paraguay.[3]

The venom of this genus was poorly characterized, due to the low amount produced by Colubridae, a more detailed characterization of particularly interesting proteins could only be viable by obtaining recombinant proteins, but there is a report of an accident by a Phalotris, which resulted in headache, local and oral mucosa hemorrhage, edema and renal failure. Another accident report occurred with a 37-year-old biologist, whose symptoms were immediate local pain, bleeding and edema, a few hours later there was headache, systemic hemorrhage, fever, myalgia and dark urine. A study of the venom of Phalotris mertensi showed a myotoxic action 3 times greater than Bothrops jararaca.[4][5]

Genus Phalotris at The Reptile Database.
Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Phalotris mertensi, p. 176).
"Phalotris normanscotti ". The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
"O27-Envenomation by Phalotris trilineatus in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A case report". www.jvat.org.br. Retrieved 2021-10-03.


Further reading

Cope ED (1862). "Observations upon certain Cyprinoid fish in Pennsylvania; on Elapomorphus, Sympholis, and Coniophanes ". Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 522-524. (Phalotris, new genus, p. 524).
Cacciali, P., Mee, G., Plettenberg Laing, A., Krause, D., Mclaughlin, C., Montgomery, R. and Smith, P. (2020). "Morphological Re-Examination of the Endemic Paraguayan Snake Phalotris nigrilatus Ferrarezzi, 1993 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphini), with Notes on Its Ecology and Conservation Status." Current Herpetology, 39(1), 28-37. www.herpco.com

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