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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Colubroidea

Familia: Colubridae
Subfamilia: Colubrinae
Genus: Salvadora
Species (9): S. bairdi – S. deserticola – S. grahamiae – S. gymnorhachis – S. hexalepis – S. intermedia – S. lemniscata – S. lineata – S. mexicana

Salvadora Baird & Girard, 1853: 104

Type species: Salvadora grahamiae Baird & Girard, 1853, by monotypy.


Phymothyra Cope, 1861: 566 [unnecessary replacement name for Salvadora Baird & Girard, 1853]

Primary references

Baird, S.F. & Girard, C. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.–Serpents. Smithsonian Institution: Washington. xvi + 172 pp. BHL Reference page.
Cope, E.D. [1860] 1861. Catalogue of the Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Part 3. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 12: 553–566. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Hernández-Jiménez, C.A., Flores-Villela, O. & Campbell, J.A. 2019. A new species of patch-nosed snake (Colubridae: Salvadora Baird and Girard, 1853) from Oaxaca, Mexico. Zootaxa 4564(2): 588–600. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4564.2.14 Paywall Reference page.
Hernández-Jiménez, C.A., Flores-Villela, O., Aguilar-Bremauntz, A. & Campbell, J.A. 2021. Phylogenetic relationships based on morphological data and taxonomy of the genus Salvadora Baird & Girard, 1853 (Reptilia, Colubridae). European Journal of Taxonomy 764(1): 85–118. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2021.764.1473 Open access Reference page.


Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Salvadora . The Reptile Database. Accessed on 22 October 2021.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Pflasternasennatter
English: Patchnose Snakes

Salvadora is a genus of colubrid snakes commonly called patchnose snakes or patch-nosed snakes, which are endemic to the western United States and Mexico.[1] They are characterized by having a distinctive scale on the tip of the snout.

Species and subspecies

The following species and subspecies are recognized.[2]

  • Salvadora bairdi Jan, 1860 – Baird's patchnose snake[3]
  • Salvadora deserticola Schmidt, 1940 – Big Bend patchnose snake
  • Salvadora grahamiae Baird & Girard, 1853 – mountain patchnose snake
  • Salvadora gymnorhachis Hernandez-Jimenez, Flores-Villela, & Campbell, 2019
  • Salvadora hexalepis (Cope, 1866) – western patchnose snake
    • Salvadora hexalepis hexalepis (Cope, 1866) – desert patchnose snake
    • Salvadora hexalepis klauberi Bogert, 1945 – Baja California patchnose snake
    • Salvadora hexalepis mojavensis Bogert, 1945 – Mojave patchnose snake
    • Salvadora hexalepis virgultea Bogert, 1935 – coast patchnose snake
  • Salvadora intermedia Hartweg, 1940 – Oaxacan patchnose snake
  • Salvadora lemniscata (Cope, 1895) – Pacific patchnose snake
  • Salvadora lineata Schmidt, 1940 – Texas patchnose snake
  • Salvadora mexicana (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) – Mexican patchnose snake


Conant, Roger (1975). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. xviii + 429 pp. + Plates 1-48. ISBN 0-395-19979-4 (hardcover), ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (paperback). (Salvadora, pp. 187-189, Figure 42 + Plate 31 + Maps 143, 146).
"Salvadora ". The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.

Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Salvadori bairdi, p.14).

Further reading

Baird SF, Girard CF (1853). Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part I.—Serpents. Washington, District of Columbia: Smithsonian Institution. xvi + 172 pp. (Salvadora, new genus, p. 104).
Schmidt KP, Davis DD (1941). Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 365 pp. (Genus Salvadora, p. 135).
Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr (1982). Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3. (Genus Salvadora, p. 194).
Stebbins RC (2003). A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series ®. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. xiii + 533 pp. ISBN 978-0-395-98272-3. (Genus Salvadora, p. 356).
Wright AH, Wright AA (1957). Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Ithaca and London: Comstock. 1,105 pp. (in 2 volumes) (Genus Salvadora, p. 644).
Zim HS, Smith HM (1956). Reptiles and Amphibians: A Guide to Familiar Species: A Golden Nature Guide. New York: Simon and Schuster. 160 pp. (Genus Salvadora, pp. 88, 156).


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