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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Viperoidea

Familia: Viperidae
Subfamilia: Crotalinae
Genus: Trimeresurus
Subgenera (8): T. (Himalayophis) – T. (Parias) – T. (Popeia) – T. (Sinovipera) – T. (Trimeresurus) – T. (Viridovipera)
Species (38): T. albolabris – T. andersonii – T. arunachalensis – T. cantori – T. cardamomensis – T. erythrurus – T. fasciatus – T. flavomaculatus – T. gracilis – T. gumprechti – T. gunaleni – T. hageni – T. honsonensis – T. insularis – T. kanburiensis – T. labialis – T. macrops – T. malcolmi – T. mcgregori – T. medoensis – T. mutabilis – T. nebularis – T. phuketensis – T. popeiorum – T. purpureomaculatus – T. sabahi – T. salazar – T. schultzei – T. septentrionalis – T. sichuanensis – T. stejnegeri – T. sumatranus – T. tibetanus – T. truongsonensis – T. venustus – T. vogeli – T. yingjiangensis – T. yunnanensis
Name

Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804: 209

Type species: Trimeresurus viridis Lacépède, 1804 [=Vipera viridis Daudin, 1803], by subsequent designation by Brattström (1964: 250).

References
Primary references

Lacépède, B.G.E.L. (Comte de) 1804. Mémoire sur plusieurs animaux de la Nouvelle Hollande dont la description n’a pas encore été publiée. Annales du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle 4: 184–211, plates 55–58.

Additional references

Captain, A., Deepak, V., Pandit, R., Bhatt, B. & Athreya, R. 2019. A New Species of Pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Trimeresurus Lacepède, 1804) from West Kameng District, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Russian Journal of Herpetology 26(2): 111-122. Reference page.
Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(1): 83–100. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2004.02.008 Paywall Reference page.
David, P., Vogel, G. & Dubois, A. 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51. Preview PDF. Reference page.
Vogel, G., David, P. & Chandramouli, S.R. 2014. On the systematics of Trimeresurus labialis Fitzinger in Steindachner, 1867, a pitviper from the Nicobar Islands (India), with revalidation of Trimeresurus mutabilis Stoliczka, 1870 (Squamata, Viperidae, Crotalinae). Zootaxa 3786(5): 557–573. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3786.5.4 Reference page.
Vogel, G., David, P. & Sidik, I. 2014. On Trimeresurus sumatranus (Raffles, 1822), with the designation of a neotype and the description of a new species of pitviper from Sumatra (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 8(2) [General Issue]: 1–29. BHL Reference page.
Mirza, Z.A., Bhosale, H.S., Phansalkar, P.U., Sawant, M., Gowande, G.G. & Patel, M. 2020. A new species of green pit vipers of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Viperidae) from western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Zoosystematics and Evolution 96(1): 123–138. DOI: 10.3897/zse.96.48431 Open access Reference page.
Mulcahy, D.G., Lee, J.L., Miller, A.H. & Zug, G.R. 2017. Troublesome Trimes: Potential cryptic speciation of the Trimeresurus (Popeia) popeiorum complex (Serpentes: Crotalidae) around the Isthmus of Kra (Myanmar and Thailand). Zootaxa 4347(2): 301–315. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4347.2.6. Full article (PDF). Reference page.
Chen, Z.-N., Zhang, L., Shi, J.-S., Tang, Y., Guo, Y., Song, Z. & Ding, L. 2019. A New Species of the Genus Trimeresurus from Southwest China (Squamata: Viperidae). Asian Herpetological Research 10(1): 13–23. DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180062 Reference page.

Links

Uetz, P. & Hallermann, J. 2021. Trimeresurus . The Reptile Database. Accessed on 20 November 2018.

Vernacular names
English: Asian Pit Vipers
日本語: ハブ属

Trimeresurus is a genus of venomous pit vipers found in Asia from the Indian Subcontinent throughout Southeast Asia, China and the Pacific Islands. Currently at least 50 species are recognized.[2] Common names include Asian palm pit vipers,[3] Asian lanceheads and Asian lance-headed vipers.[4]

Description

Most species in the genus Trimeresurus are relatively small, primarily arboreal species, with thin bodies and prehensile tails. Most Trimeresurus species are typically green in color, but some species also have yellow, black, orange, red, or gold markings.
Feeding

The diet of Trimeresurus species includes a variety of animals, including lizards, amphibians, birds, rodents, and other small mammals.
Reproduction

Like most viper species, many of the species in the genus Trimeresurus are ovoviviparous, bearing live young. However, some species such as T. flavoviridis, T. kaulbacki, and T. macrolepis are oviparous, laying eggs. Also, the reproductive biology of some Trimeresurus species is as yet unknown.
Venom

Trimeresurus venom varies in toxicity between species, but all are primarily hemotoxic and considered to be medically significant to humans.
Geographic range

Species in the genus Trimeresurus are found in Southeast Asia from India including regions of North Chotanagpur of Jharkhand to southern China and Japan, and the Malay Archipelago to Timor.[1]
Species

Image Species[2] Taxon author[2] Subsp.*[2] Common name[5] Geographic range[1]
Trimeresurus albolabris, White-lipped pit viper (female) - Kaeng Krachan National Park (27493423545).jpg T. albolabris Gray, 1842 0 White-lipped pit viper India (Assam), Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, southern China (Fukien, Hainan, Kwangsi, Kwangtung), Hong Kong, West Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Java, Madoera, Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, Sumba, Roti, Timor, Kisar, Wetar).
Baby Sumatran Palm Pit Viper (Trimeresurus andalasensis) (23927643320).jpg T. andalasensis David, Vogel, Vijaykumar & Vidal, 2006 0 Sumatran palm pit viper Indonesia: Sumatra.
T. andersonii Theobald, 1868 0 Anderson’s pit viper, Andaman pit viper Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands.
T. arunachalensis Captain, Deepak, Pandit, Bhatt, and Athreya, 2019 0 Arunachal pit viper India: Arunachal Pradesh
T. borneensis W. Peters, 1872 0 Bornean pit viper Indonesia: Borneo.
T. brongersmai Hoge, 1969 0 Brongersma's pit viper Indonesia: Simalur Island.
T. cantori Blyth, 1846 0 Cantor's pit viper India: Nicobar Islands, and possibly the Andaman Islands.
Trimeresurus cardamomensis in Khao Wong National Park.jpg T. cardamomensis Malhotra, Thorpe, Mrinalini, & Stuart, 2011 0 Cardamom Mountains green pit viper Eastern Thailand, Koh Kong Province in Cambodia.
T. caudornatus Chen, Ding, Vogel, & Shi, 2020 0 Ornamental-tailed pit viper China (Yunnan).
T. davidi Chandramouli, Campbell, & Vogel, 2020.[6] 0 Car Nicobar, India.
Trimeresurus erythrurus crotale bambous 41.jpg T. erythrurus Cantor, 1839 0 Red-tailed bamboo pit viper India (Assam and Sikkim), Bangladesh and Myanmar.
T. fasciatus Boulenger, 1896 0 Banded pit viper Indonesia: Djampea Island.
Trimeresurus flavomaculatus (KU 330049) from mid-elevation, Mt. Cagua - ZooKeys-266-001-g098.jpg T. flavomaculatus Gray, 1842 2 Philippine pit viper Philippine Islands: Agutayan, Batan, Camiguin, Catanduanes, Dinagat, Jolo, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros and Polillo.
T. gracilis Ōshima, 1920 0 Kikushi habu Central Taiwan.
Trimeresurus gramineus cropped.jpg T. gramineusT Shaw, 1802 0 Bamboo pit viper Southern India.
Trimeresurus gumprechti, Gumprecht’s pit viper (female) - Phu Suan Sai National Park (46711073485).jpg T. gumprechti David, Vogel, Pauwels & Vidal, 2002 0 Gumprecht's green pit viper China (Yunnan), Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.
T. gunaleni Vogel, David, & Sidik, 2014 0 Gunalen's pit viper Sumatra.
T. guoiT Chen, Shi, Vogel, & Ding, 2020 0 Guo's green pit viper China, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar.
T. hageni Lidth de Jeude, 1886 0 Hagen's pit viper Peninsular Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra and the nearby islands of Bangka, Simalur, Nias, Batu and the Mentawai Islands.
T. honsonensis Grismer, Ngo, & Grismer, 2008 0 Hon Son pit viper Southern Vietnam.
Trimeresurus insularis.jpg T. insularis Kramer, 1977 0 Sunda Island pit viper, White-lipped island pit viper Indonesia, Timor-Leste
Gfp-kanburi-pit-viper.jpg T. kanburiensis M.A. Smith, 1943 0 Kanburi pit viper Thailand.
T. labialis Steindachner, 1867 0 Nicobar bamboo pit viper India: Nicobar Islands.
Trimeresurus macrolepis profile.jpg T. macrolepis Beddome, 1862 0 Large-scaled pit viper The mountains of southern India.
Trimeresurus macrops, Large-eyed pit viper.jpg T. macrops Kramer, 1977 0 Large-eyed pit viper Thailand, Cambodia and southern Vietnam.
Pit viper head.jpg T. malabaricus Jerdon, 1854 0 Malabar rock pit viper Southern and western India at 600-2,000 m elevation.
T. malcolmi Loveridge, 1938 0 Malcolm's pit viper Borneo.
Parias mcgregori.png T. mcgregori Taylor, 1919 0 McGregor's pit viper, McGregor's tree viper, Philippine pit viper Batan Island, Philippines.
Reptile Medo Pit Viper Viridovipera medoensis IMG 4231 08.jpg T. medoensis Zhao, 1977 0 Motuo bamboo pit viper Northern India, northern Myanmar and China (southeastern Xizang).
T. mutabilis Stoliczka, 1870 0 Central Nicobar pit viper, Central Nicobar bamboo pit viper Central Nicobar Island.
Trimeresurus nebularis au parc de Bako (Malaisie).jpg T. nebularis Vogel, David, & Pauwels, 2004 0 Cameron Highlands pit viper, Clouded pit viper West Malaysia (Cameron Highlands), Thailand.
T. phuketensis Sumontha, Kunya, S.G. Pauwels, Nitikul & Punnadee, 2011 [7] 0 Phuket pit viper Thailand: Phuket Island.
Trimeresurus popeiorum, Pope's pit viper - Doi Phu Kha National Park (46846412805).jpg T. popeiorum M.A. Smith, 1937 2 Popes' pit viper Northern India, Myanmar, Thailand, West Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia (Sumatra, the Mentawai Islands of Siberut, Sipora and North Pagai, and on the island of Borneo).
Trimeresurus puniceus vipere nez plat 67.jpg T. puniceus Kuhl, 1824 0 Flat-nosed pit viper Southern Thailand, West and East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) and Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra, the Mentawai Islands of Siberut and North Pagai, Simalur and Java.
Mangrove Pit Viper.jpg T. purpureomaculatus Gray, 1832 0 Mangrove pit viper Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra).
Trimeresurus rubeus juvenile CTNP RPB.jpg T. rubeus Malhotra, 2011 0 Ruby-eyed green pit viper Cambodia (Mondulkiri), southern Vietnam.
Trimeresurus sabahi fucatus, Banded pit viper (female) - Khao Sok National Park (29008775554).jpg T. sabahi Regenass & Kramer, 1981 0 Sabah bamboo pit viper, Sabah pit viper Sabah, Sarawak
Trimeresurus salazar (10.3897-zse.96.48431) Figure 7.jpg T. salazar Mirza, Bhosale, Phansalkar, Sawant, Gowande, & Patel (2020) 0 Salazar’s pit viper[8] India: western lowlands of Arunachal Pradesh
Trimeresurus schultzei.jpg T. schultzei Griffin, 1909 0 Schultze's pit viper Philippines: Palawan and Balabac.
Trimeresurus septentrionalis wiki.jpg T. septentrionalis Kramer, 1977 0 Nepal pit viper, Himalayan white-lipped pit viper Bangladesh, India, Nepal
T. sichuanensis Guo & Wang, 2011 0 Sichuan pit viper Sichuan, China
Trimeresurus stejnegeri.jpg T. stejnegeri Schmidt, 1925 2 Stejneger's pit viper India (Assam), and Nepal through Myanmar and Thailand to China (Kwangsi, Kwangtung, Hainan, Fukien, Chekiang, Yunnan) and Taiwan.
Horse-shoe pitviper Trimeresurus strigatus.jpg T. strigatus Gray, 1842 0 Horseshoe pit viper The hills of southern India.
Sumatran Pit Viper (Trimeresurus sumatranus) (8741684078).jpg T. sumatranus Raffles, 1822 0 Sumatran pit viper Southern Thailand, West and East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo) and Indonesia (Bangka, Billiton, Borneo, Sumatra and the nearby islands of Simalur, Nias, and possibly the Mentawai Islands [Sipora]).
T. tibetanus Huang, 1982 0 Tibetan bamboo pit viper China: Xiang (Tibet) Autonomous Region.
Sri Lanka Green Pit Viper.jpg T. trigonocephalus Donndorff, 1798 0 Sri Lankan pit viper Throughout Sri Lanka from low elevations to about 1,800 m.
T. truongsonensis Orlov, Ryabov, Thanh, & Cuc, 2004 0 Quang Binh pit viper Central Vietnam
Trimeresurus venustus.jpg T. venustus Vogel, 1991 0 Beautiful pit viper, Brown-spotted pit viper Southern Thailand
Vogel's Pit Viper, Trimeresurus vogeli.jpg T. vogeli David, Vidal & Pauwels, 2001 0 Vogel's pit viper Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.
T. wiroti Trutnau, 1981 0 Wirot's pit viper Thailand, West Malaysia.
T. yingjiangensis Chen, Zhang, Shi, et al., 2019 0 Southwest China
T. yunnanensis Schmidt, 1925 0 Yunnan bamboo pit viper Southern China

*) Not including the nominate subspecies.
T) Type species.[1]
Taxonomy

Additional species that may be recognized by other sources include:[9]

T. barati Regenass & Kramer, 1981. Commonly called Barat's bamboo viper, found in Indonesia.
T. fucatus Vogel, David & Pauwels, 2004. Commonly called the Siamese peninsula pit viper and found in southern Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia.

The genus Trimeresurus (sensu lato) has been the subject of considerable taxonomic work since 2000, resulting in the recognition of additional genera within this complex. Most authors now recognise the genus Protobothrops for the species cornutus, flavoviridis, jerdonii, kaulbacki, mucrosquamatus, tokarensis, xiangchengensis,[10][11][12] since these have been shown not to be closely related to other Trimeresurus in recent phylogenetic analyses.

In addition, Malhotra and Thorpe (2004)[11] proposed a radical shake up of the entire genus, splitting Trimeresurus into seven genera. Their proposed arrangement (including species described since 2004) is shown in the table below:

Genus Species included
Trimeresurus andalasensis, borneensis, brongersmai, gramineus, malabaricus, puniceus, salazar, strigatus, trigonocephalus, wiroti
Cryptelytrops albolabris, andersonii, cantori, erythrurus, fasciatus, honsonensis (Hon Son Pit Viper), insularis, kanburiensis, labialis, macrops, purpureomaculatus, rubeus, septentrionalis, venustus
Himalayophis tibetanus
Parias flavomaculatus, hageni, malcolmi, mcgregori, schultzei, sumatranus
Peltopelor macrolepis
Popeia barati, buniana, fucata, nebularis, popeiorum, sabahi
Viridovipera gumprechti, medoensis, stejnegeri, truongsonensis, vogeli, yunnanensis

This new arrangement has been followed by many,[12][13] but not all[9][14] subsequent authors.

David et al. (2011) considered some of the genera of Malhotra & Thorpe to be subgenera of the genus Trimeresurus, creating new combinations such as "Trimeresurus (Parias) flavomaculatus", "Trimeresurus (Popeia) popeiorum", "Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) stejnegeri", etc.[15]

References

McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
"Trimeresurus ". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 27 September 2006.
Mehrtens JM (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
United States Navy (1991). Poisonous Snakes of the World. New York: U.S. Government / Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
Gumprecht A, Tillack F, Orlov NL, Captain A, Ryabov S (2004). Asian Pitvipers. First Edition. Berlin: GeitjeBooks. 368 pp. ISBN 3-937975-00-4.
Chandramouli, S. R.; Campbell, Patrick D.; Vogel, Gernot (1 November 2020). "A new species of green pit viper of the genus TrimeresurusLacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) from the Nicobar Archipelago, Indian Ocean" (PDF). Amphibian & Reptile Conservation. 14 (3): 169–176. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
Sumontha M, Kunya K, Pauwels OSG, Nitikul A, Punnadee S (2011). "Trimeresurus (Popeia) phuketensis, a New Pitviper (Squamata: Viperidae) from Phuket Island, Southwestern Thailand". Russian Journal of Herpetology 18 (3): 11-17.
Mirza, Zeeshan A; Bhosale, Harshal S; Phansalkar, Pushkar U.; Sawant, Mandar; Gowande, Gaurang G; Patel, Harshil (15 April 2020). "A New Species of Green Pit Vipers of the Genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Viperidae) from western Arunachal Pradesh, India". Zoosystematics and Evolution. 96 (1): 123–138. doi:10.3897/zse.96.48431. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
Trimeresurus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 2 February 2017.
Kraus F, Mink DG, Brown WM (1996). "Crotaline intergeneric relationships based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Copeia 1996: 763-773.
Malhotra A, Thorpe RS (2004). "A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83-100.
Castoe TA, Parkinson CL (2006). "Bayesian mixed models and the phylogeny of pitvipers (Viperidae: Serpentes)". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 39: 91-110.
Grismer LL, Grismer JL, McGuire JA (2006). "A new species of pitviper of the genus Popeia (Squamata: Viperidae) from Pulau Tioman, Pahang, West Malaysia". Zootaxa 1305: 1-19.
Vogel G (2006). Venomous Snakes of Asia / Giftschlangen Asiens. Frankfurt am Main: Terralog, Edition Chimaira.

David, Patrick; Vogel, Gernot; Dubois, Alain (2011). "On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae)". Zootaxa 2992: 1-51.

Further reading

Lacépède BG (1804). "Mémoire sur plusieurs animaux de la Nouvelle-Hollande dont la description n'a pas encore été publiée ". Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4: 184-211. (Trimeresurus, new genus, p. 209). (in French).

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