Varanus beccarii

Varanus beccarii (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Reptilia
Subclassis: Diapsida
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Sauria
Infraordo: Platynota
Familia: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus
Species: Varanus beccarii

Name

Varanus beccarii Doria, 1874

References

* Varanus beccarii Report on ITIS

Vernacular names
Internationalization
English: Black tree monitor
日本語: クロホソオオトカゲ

The Black tree monitor (Varanus beccarii), or Beccari's monitor is a relatively small member of the Varanidae family, growing up to about 3–4 feet (90–120 cm) in length. They inhabit the Aru Islands of New Guinea, living in an arboreal habitat. Their skin color is completely black, lending the monitor its name.[3]


Taxonomy

Varanus beccari was first described as Monitor beccari by Doria, in 1874. Years later it was classified as a subspecies of the Emerald tree monitor (Varanus prasinus), but has since been regarded as a full species in its own right. Its true classification remains a point of contention among herpetologists.[4]

The generic name Varanus is derived from the Arabic word waral (ورل), which translates as "monitor" in English.[5] Its specific name, beccarii, is named after the Italian explorer Odoardo Beccari.[3]

Description

Hatchlings and juveniles are a dark grey in colour, with regular rows of bright yellow-green dots which are particularly noticeable on the back. As they achieve adulthood they turn completely black, losing the colourful dots. Fully grown specimens reach 3 to 4 feet (90–120 cm) in length, with the males slightly larger than the females.

The black tree monitor is generally well adapted for living in trees. Its tail is particularly long, sometimes two-thirds of the overall body length, and is used in a prehensile manner to stabilize the animal in the branches.[6] In fact, the tail is used solely for this purpose, as the animal does not evince the defensive tail-lashing behaviour seen in other monitor species. The black tree monitor’s feet sport large claws and adhesive soles, which help it to maintain grip in the trees. It also has unusually long teeth for a monitor of its size, which may help it to hold on to prey it catches in the canopy. Black tree monitors in the wild are reported to be nervous and high-strung; they will flee if threatened and if handled carelessly will scratch, bite, and defecate on the offender.[3]

Predators and prey

Black tree monitors are carnivorous, consuming insects, smaller lizards, and small mammals such as shrews. They may also take scorpions, eggs, and nestlings. They are themselves preyed upon by larger lizards and snakes, as well as foxes, which were introduced to the region. They are also hunted by humans.

Distribution

The species is native to the Aru Islands of Indonesia, where it is known locally as Waweyaro. It mainly inhabits humid forests and mangrove swamps.[7]

Conservation

Varanus beccarii is not on the IUCN red list, but it is vulnerable to loss of habitat due to its restricted range. It is also popular in the pet trade, with most specimens being captured from the wild because they need so much room to breed in captivity.

References

1. ^ "Varanus beccarii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=716501. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
2. ^ Doria, Giacomo (1874). [325-257 "Enumerazione dei rettili raccolti dal Dott. O. Beccari in Amboina alle Isole Aru ed alle Isole Kei durante gli anni"]. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 6. 325-257.
3. ^ a b c Netherton, John; Badger, David P. (2002). Lizards: A Natural History of Some Uncommon Creatures, Extraordinary Chameleons, Iguanas, Geckos, and More. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-7603-2579-0.
4. ^ Sprackland, R.G. (1991). "Taxonomic review of the Varanus prasinus group with descriptions of two new species". Mem. Queensland Museum 3 (3): 561–576.
5. ^ King, Ruth Allen; Pianka, Eric R.; King, Dennis (2004). Varanoid Lizards of the World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 225–229. ISBN 0-253-34366-6.
6. ^ Cogger, Harold; Zweifel, Richard (1992). Reptiles & Amphibians. Sydney: Weldon Owen. ISBN 0831727861.
7. ^ Monk, Kathryn A.; De Fretes, Yance (1997). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Periplus Editions. ISBN 9625930760.

Images

Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

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