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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Superclassis/Classis: Actinopterygii
Classis/Subclassis: Actinopteri
Subclassis/Infraclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Megacohors: Osteoglossocephalai
Supercohors: Clupeocephala
Cohors: Otomorpha
Subcohors: Ostariophysi
Sectio: Otophysa
Ordo: Siluriformes

Familia: Akysidae
Genus: Akysis
Species: A. armatus – A. bilustris – A. brachybarbatus – A. branchybarbatus – A. clavulus – A. clinatus – A. ephippifer – A. fontaneus – A. fuliginatus – A. galeatus – A. hendricksoni – A. heterurus – A. kurzii – A. longifilis – A. maculipinnis – A. major – A. meridionalis – A. microps – A. pictus – A. portellus – A. prashadi – A. pulvinatus – A. recavus – A. scorteus – A. subtilis – A. variegatus – A. varius – A. vespa – A. vespertinus
Name

Akysis Bleeker, 1858
References

FishBase
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)

Akysis is the largest genus of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Akysidae.

Taxonomy

In 1996, it was determined that Akysis is the sister group to all other akysids, then only including Parakysis, Acrochordonichthys, and Breitensteinia. However, it was acknowledged that the genus Akysis was poorly-sampled at the time and may be deemed non-monophyletic in the future.[1]

In 1998, it was recognized that the large genus Akysis includes two species groups. The first species group was the Akysis variegatus group, for species more closely related to the type species; the other group was the pseudobagarius group for species more closely related to the formerly-named Akysis pseudobagarius; the authors recognized it as conceivable that the groups represented two genera, but tentatively retained the species in a single genus.[2] Since then, the genus Pseudobagarius was erected for this species group, leaving only members of the A. variegatus group in the genus Akysis.[3]

In 2007, Laguvia manipurensis was redescribed to the genus Akysis as part of the A. variegatus group.[4]
Distribution

These fish are found in fast-flowing streams in Southeast Asia. This area is bordered by the Irrawaddy River drainage to the west, the Barito River drainage to the east, the Lancangjiang (upper Mekong) drainage to the north, and the Citarum River drainage to the south.[5] Akysis have been reported from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Tenasserim, Thailand, Myanmar, and, most recently, the distribution of Akysis has been discovered to include India.[4]
Description

These small catfish can be distinguished by their general colouring of yellow markings on a brown background.[5] Fishes of the genus Akysis are diagnosed by having tough leathery skin covered with tubercles which are arranged in longitudinal rows along the sides, the anterior margin of the pectoral spine with a notch visible dorsally, the nasals with expansions beyond the canal-bearing teeth, and no palatal teeth.[5] These fish are distinguished from the members of the genus Pseudobagarius by a number of characteristics: these species have a terminal mouth; the posterior and anterior nostrils being smaller and located further apart with a distance between the base of the nasal barbel and anterior nostril; the anterior nostrils are situated at the tip of a short tube; and the caudal fin is truncate or emarginate rather that forked.[2]

The maximum adult size of Akysis species is less than 70 millimetres (2.8 in) SL.[6]
Ecology

Catfishes of the genus Akysis are small cryptically-coloured species.[1] Akysis are small secretive fishes that occupy a variety of habitats. Most species typically inhabit clear swift-flowing upland streams with sandy or rocky substrates. Some species are reported from the muddy side and main channels and deltas of large rivers. In smaller streams they may be found hiding in leaf litter and woody debris, in patches of live vegetation such as Cryptocoryne affinis, or in shallow riffle areas under coarse gravel or larger stones. Species of Akysis also are reported from the shallow margins to the bottom depths of large rivers where they are usually taken in trawls together with decaying vegetation.[6]
Species

There are currently 24 recognized species in this genus:[7][8]

Akysis bilustris Ng, 2011[9]
Akysis brachybarbatus Chen, 1981
Akysis clavulus Ng & Freyhof, 2003
Akysis clinatus Ng & Rainboth, 2005
Akysis ephippifer Ng & Kottelat, 1998
Akysis fontaneus Ng, 2009
Akysis fuliginatus Ng & Rainboth, 2005
Akysis galeatus Page, Rachmatika & Robins, 2007
Akysis hendricksoni Alfred, 1966
Akysis heterurus Ng, 1996
Akysis longifilis Ng, 2006
Akysis maculipinnis Fowler, 1934
Akysis manipurensis (Arunkumar, 2000)
Akysis microps Ng & Tan, 1999
Akysis pictus Günther, 1883 (Burmese stream catfish)
Akysis portellus Ng, 2009
Akysis prashadi Hora, 1936 (Indawgyi stream catfish)
Akysis pulvinatus Ng, 2007
Akysis recavus Ng & Kottelat, 1998
Akysis scorteus Page, Hadiaty & López, 2007
Akysis variegatus (Bleeker, 1846)
Akysis varius Ng & Kottelat, 1998
Akysis vespa Ng & Kottelat, 2004
Akysis vespertinus Ng, 2008

References

Ng, Heok Hee; Freyhof, Jörg (December 2003). "Akysis clavulus, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Akysidae) from central Vietnam". Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters. 14 (4): 311–316.
Ng, Heok Hee; Kottelat, M. (1998). "The catfish genus Akysis Bleeker (Teleostei: Akysidae) in Indochina, with descriptions of six new species". Journal of Natural History. 32 (7): 1057–1097. doi:10.1080/00222939800770531.
Ferraris, Carl J., Jr. (2007). "Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1418: 1–628. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1418.1.1.
Vishwanath, W.; Linthoingambi, I.; Juliana, L. (2007). "Fishes of the Genus Akysis Bleeker from India (Teleostei: Akysidae)". Zoos' Print Journal. 22 (5): 2675–2678. doi:10.11609/jott.zpj.1547.2675-8.
Ng, Heok Hee (2006). "Akysis longifilis, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Akysidae) from Myanmar" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1150: 19–30. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1150.1.2.
Ng, Heok Hee; Sabaj, Mark H. (September 2005). "Akysis hardmani (Siluriformes: Akysidae), a new species of catfish from Thailand". Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters. 16 (3): 215–222.
Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). Species of Akysis in FishBase. June 2014 version.
Kottelat, M. (2013). "The Fishes of the Inland Waters of Southeast Asia: A Catalogue and Core Bibliography of the Fishes Known to Occur in Freshwaters, Mangroves and Estuaries" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Supplement No. 27: 1–663. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-02.
Ng, Heok Hee (2011). "Akysis bilustris, a new species of catfish from southern Laos (Siluriformes: Akysidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3066: 61–68. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3066.1.5.

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