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Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Osteichthyes
Classis: Actinopterygii
Subclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Superordo: Ostariophysi
Ordo: Siluriformes
Familia: Clariidae
Genera: Bathyclarias - Channallabes - Clariallabes - Clarias - Dinotopterus - Dolichallabes - Encheloclarias - Gymnallabes - Heterobranchus - Heteropneustes - Horaglanis - Platyallabes - Platyclarias - Tanganikallabes - Uegitglanis - Xenoclarias


Clariidae Bonaparte, 1846


* Clariidae Report on ITIS
* FishBase link : family Clariidae (Mirror site) (+species list)
* Ferraris Carl J., Jr., Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types. Zootaxa, 1418: 1–628 (2007) (pdf)
* Greenwood, P.H. 1961: A revision of the genus Dinotopterus Blgr. (Pisces, Clariidae) with notes on the comparative anatomy of the suprabranchial organs in the Clariidae. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology, 7 (4): 215-241. BioStor

Vernacular Name
English: Airbreathing catfish
Polski: Długowąsowate
中文: 塘虱

Airbreathing catfishes are fishes comprising the family Clariidae of order Siluriformes. There are about 14 genera and 100 species of clariids. All the clariids are freshwater species.[1]


Although clariids occur in Syria, southern Turkey and large parts of Southeast Asia, their diversity is the largest in Africa.[2]


Clariid catfishes are characterized by an elongate body, the presence of four barbels, long dorsal and anal fins, and especially by the autapomorphic presence of a suprabranchial organ, formed by tree-like structures from the second and fourth gill arches.[1][2] This suprabranchial organ, or labyrinth organ, allows some species the capability of travelling short distances on land ('walking catfishes').[1]

The dorsal fin base is very long and is not preceded by a fin spine. The dorsal fin may or may not be continuous with the caudal fin, which is rounded. Pectoral and pelvic fins are variously absent in some species. Some fish have small eyes and reduced or absent pectoral and pelvic fins for a burrowing lifestyle. A few species are blind.[1]

Within the clariidae family there is a range of body forms from fusiform (torpedo-like) to anguilliform (eel-like). As species become more eel-shaped, a whole set of morphological changes have been observed, such as decrease and loss of the adipose fin, continuous unpaired fins, reduction of paired fins, reduction of the eyes, reduction of the skull bones, and hypertrophied jaw muscles.[2]


Heteropneustidae containing the genus Heteropneustes is considered by some to be a separate family and by others to be a subfamily. With Heteropneustidae and Clariidae as separate family, a recent paper groups these families into a superfamily called Clarioidea. Relationships of clarioids to other families remains uncertain.[3]

Relationship to humans

Many clariids form a large part of artisanal fisheries. Clarias gariepinus is recognized as one of the most promising aquaculture species in Africa.[4]

The airbreathing capacity of these fish has allowed such fish as Clarias batrachus to be an invasive species in Florida.[1]


1. ^ a b c d e Nelson, Joseph S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.
2. ^ a b c Devaere, Stijn; Adriaens, Dominique; Teugels, Guy G.; Verraes, Walter (2006). "Morphology of the cranial system of Platyclarias machadoi: interdependencies of skull flattening and suspensorial structure in Clariidae". Zoomorphology 125 (2): 69. doi:10.1007/s00435-005-0012-7.
3. ^ Sullivan, JP; Lundberg JG; Hardman M (2006). "A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences". Mol Phylogenet Evol. 41 (3): 636–62. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.044. PMID 16876440.
4. ^ Skelton, Paul H.; Teugels, Guy G. (1991). "A review of the clariid catfishes (Siluroidei, Clariidae) occurring in southern Africa". Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 24 (3): 241–260.

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License