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Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Osteichthyes
Classis: Actinopterygii
Subclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Ordo: Perciformes
Subordo: Gobioidei
Familia: Eleotridae
Genera: Belobranchus - Bostrychus - Bunaka - Butis - Calumia - Dormitator - Eleotris - Erotelis - Gobiomorphus - Gobiomorus - Grahamichthys - Guavina - Hemieleotris - Hypseleotris - Incara - Kimberleyeleotris - Kribia - Leptophilypnus - Microphilypnus - Milyeringa - Mogurnda - Odonteleotris - Ophieleotris - Ophiocara - Oxyeleotris - Parviparma - Philypnodon - Philypnus - Pogoneleotris - Prionobutis - Ratsirakia - Tateurndina - Thalasseleotris - Typhleotris


* Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2006. FishBase, version (02/2006). [1]

Vernacular names
Česky: Hlavačkovití
Deutsch: Schläfergrundeln
English: sleeper gobies, sleepers, bullies
Lietuvių: Žvynagalvinės


Sleeper gobies are members of the Eleotridae fish family, found predominantly in the tropical Indo-Pacific. There are approximately 35 genera and 150 species. While many eleotrids pass through a planktonic stage in the sea and some spend their entire lives in the sea, as adults the majority live in freshwater streams and brackish waters. They are especially important as predators in the freshwater stream ecosystems on oceanic islands such as New Zealand and Hawai'i that otherwise lack the predatory fish families typical of nearby continents, such as catfish. Anatomically they are similar to the gobies (Gobiidae), though unlike the majority of gobies, they do not have a pelvic sucker. [1]

Like the true gobies they are generally small fish that live on the substrate, often amongst vegetation, in burrows, or in crevices within rocks and coral reefs. Although goby-like in many ways, sleeper gobies lack the pelvic fin sucker, and that, together with other morphological differences, is used to distinguish the two families. It is widely believed that the Gobiidae and Eleotridae share a common ancestor, and they are both placed in the suborder Gobioidei, along with a few other small families containing goby-like fishes. [1]

Dormitator and Eleotris are two of the most widespread and typical genera, including a variety of species that inhabit marine, estuarine, and freshwater habitats. For example, the fat sleeper goby (Dormitator maculatus) grows to over 1 ft (30 cm) and is widely found in fresh to brackish and shallow marine waters of the southeastern United States and Mexico. [2] There are some predatory sleeper gobies that get much bigger, such as the marbled sleeper goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata, a freshwater species from Southeast Asia that can grow to 2 ft (60 cm) long. [3] However, most are much smaller, such as the fresh and brackish water species from Australia like Hypseleotris spp., known locally as gudgeons (not to be confused with the Eurasian freshwater cyprinid Gobio gobio, also known as the gudgeon and after which the Australian sleeper gobies were likely named). [4]


* Genus Belobranchus
o Throat-spine gudgeon, Belobranchus belobranchus (Valenciennes, 1837)
* Genus Bostrychus
o Bostrychus africanus (Steindachner, 1879)
o Island gudgeon, Bostrychus aruensis Weber, 1911
o Bostrychus microphthalmus Hoese & Kottelat, 2005
o Four-eyed sleeper, Bostrychus sinensis Lacepède, 1801
o Striped-cheek gudgeon, Bostrychus strigogenys Nichols, 1937
o Barred gudgeon, Bostrychus zonatus Weber, 1907
* Genus Bunaka
o Greenback gauvina, Bunaka gyrinoides (Bleeker, 1853)
o Bunaka pinguis Herre, 1927
* Genus Butis
o Olive flathead-gudgeon, Butis amboinensis (Bleeker, 1853)
o Duckbill sleeper, Butis butis (Hamilton, 1822)
o Butis gymnopomus (Bleeker, 1853)
o Butis humeralis (Valenciennes, 1837)
o Mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker, 1849)
o Black-spotted gudgeon, Butis melanostigma (Bleeker, 1849)
* Genus Calumia
o Tailface sleeper, Calumia godeffroyi (Günther, 1877)
o Calumia profunda Larson & Hoese, 1980
* Genus Dormitator
o Dormitator cubanus Ginsburg, 1953
o Pacific fat sleeper, Dormitator latifrons (Richardson, 1844)
o Dormitator lebretonis (Steindachner, 1870)
o Dormitator lophocephalus Hoedeman, 1951
o Fat sleeper, Dormitator maculatus (Bloch, 1792)
o Dormitator pleurops (Boulenger, 1909)
* Genus Eleotris
o Eleotris acanthopoma Bleeker, 1853
o Large-scaled spinycheek sleeper, Eleotris amblyopsis (Cope, 1871)
o Eleotris andamensis Herre, 1939
o Eleotris annobonensis Blanc, Cadenat & Stauch, 1968
o Freshwater gudgeon, Eleotris aquadulcis Allen & Coates, 1990
o Eleotris balia Jordan & Seale, 1905
o Eleotris brachyurus Bleeker, 1849
o Eleotris daganensis Steindachner, 1870
o Eleotris fasciatus Chen, 1964
o Eleotris feai Thys van den Audenaerde & Tortonese, 1974
o Dusky sleeper, Eleotris fusca (Forster, 1801)
o Lutea sleeper, Eleotris lutea Day, 1876
o Eleotris macrocephala (Bleeker, 1857)
o Eleotris macrolepis (Bleeker, 1875)
o Eleotris margaritacea Valenciennes, 1837
o Widehead sleeper, Eleotris mauritianus Bennett, 1832
o Broadhead sleeper, Eleotris melanosoma Bleeker, 1852
o Eleotris melanura Bleeker, 1849
o Eleotris oxycephala Temminck & Schlegel, 1845
o Eleotris pellegrini Maugé, 1984
o Smallscaled spinycheek sleeper, Eleotris perniger (Cope, 1871)
o Spotted sleeper, Eleotris picta Kner, 1863
o Spinycheek sleeper, Eleotris pisonis (Gmelin, 1789)
o Eleotris pseudacanthopomus Bleeker, 1853
o Sandwich Island sleeper or oopu, Eleotris sandwicensis Vaillant & Sauvage, 1875
o Eleotris senegalensis Steindachner, 1870
o Eleotris soaresi Playfair, 1867
o Eleotris tecta Bussing, 1996
o Eleotris tubularis Heller & Snodgrass, 1903
o Eleotris vittata Duméril, 1861
o Eleotris vomerodentata Maugé, 1984
* Genus Erotelis
o Erotelis armiger Jordan & Richardson, 1895
o Erotelis shropshirei Hildebrand, 1938
o Emerald sleeper, Erotelis smaragdus Valenciennes, 1837
* Genus Gobiomorphus
o Tarndale bully, Gobiomorphus alpinus Stokell, 1962
o Striped gudgeon, Gobiomorphus australis (Krefft, 1864)
o Cran's bully, Gobiomorphus basalis (Gray, 1842)
o Upland bully, Gobiomorphus breviceps (Stokell, 1939)
o Common bully, Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall, 1975
o Cox's gudgeon, Gobiomorphus coxii (Krefft, 1864)
o Giant bully, Gobiomorphus gobioides (Valenciennes, 1837)
o Bluegilled bully, Gobiomorphus hubbsi (Stokell, 1959)
o Redfinned bully, Gobiomorphus huttoni (Ogilby, 1894)
* Genus Gobiomorus
o Bigmouth sleeper, Gobiomorus dormitor Lacepède, 1800
o Gobiomorus lateralis (Gill, 1860)
o Pacific sleeper, Gobiomorus maculatus (Günther, 1859)
o Finescale sleeper, Gobiomorus polylepis Ginsburg, 1953
* Genus Grahamichthys
o Graham's gudgeon, Grahamichthys radiata Valenciennes, 1837
* Genus Guavina
o Guavina, Guavina guavina (Valenciennes, 1837)
o Guavina micropus Ginsburg, 1953
* Genus Hemieleotris
o Pygmy sleeper, Hemieleotris latifasciata (Meek & Hildebrand, 1912)
o Hemieleotris levis Eigenmann, 1918
* Genus Hypseleotris
o Hypseleotris agilis Herre, 1927
o Golden gudgeon, Hypseleotris aurea (Shipway, 1950)
o Hypseleotris bipartita Herre, 1927
o Empire gudgeon, Hypseleotris compressa (Krefft, 1864)
o Hypseleotris compressocephalus (Chen, 1985)
o Tropical carp-gudgeon, Hypseleotris cyprinoides (Valenciennes, 1837)
o Golden sleeper, Hypseleotris dayi Smith, 1950
o Slender gudgeon, Hypseleotris ejuncida Hoese & Allen, 1982
o Hypseleotris everetti (Boulenger, 1895)
o Firetailed gudgeon, Hypseleotris galii (Ogilby, 1898)
o Hypseleotris guentheri (Bleeker, 1875)
o Barnett River gudgeon, Hypseleotris kimberleyensis Hoese & Allen, 1982
o Western carp gudgeon, Hypseleotris klunzingeri (Ogilby, 1898)
o Hypseleotris leuciscus (Bleeker, 1853)
o Hypseleotris pangel Herre, 1927
o Prince Regent gudgeon, Hypseleotris regalis Hoese & Allen, 1982
o Hypseleotris tohizonae (Steindachner, 1880)
* Genus Incara
o Incara multisquamatus Rao, 1871
* Genus Kimberleyeleotris
o Mitchell gudgeon, Kimberleyeleotris hutchinsi Hoese & Allen, 1987
o Drysdale gudgeon, Kimberleyeleotris notata Hoese & Allen, 1987
* Genus Kribia
o Kribia kribensis (Boulenger, 1907)
o Kribia leonensis (Boulenger, 1916)
o Kribia nana (Boulenger, 1901)
o Kribia uellensis (Boulenger, 1913)
* Genus Leptophilypnus
o Leptophilypnus fluviatilis Meek & Hildebrand, 1916
o Leptophilypnus guatemalensis Thacker & Pezold, 2006.[5]
o Leptophilypnus mindii (Meek & Hildebrand, 1916)
* Genus Microphilypnus
o Microphilypnus amazonicus Myers, 1927
o Microphilypnus macrostoma Myers, 1927
o Microphilypnus ternetzi Myers, 1927
* Genus Milyeringa
o Blind gudgeon, Milyeringa veritas Whitley, 1945
* Genus Mogurnda
o Purple-spotted gudgeon, Mogurnda adspersa (Castelnau, 1878)
o Mogurnda aiwasoensis Allen & Renyaan, 1996
o Northern mogurnda, Mogurnda aurifodinae Whitley, 1938
o Banded mogurnda, Mogurnda cingulata Allen & Hoese, 1991
o Flinders ranges mogurnda, Mogurnda clivicola Allen & Jenkins, 1999
o Black mogurnda, Mogurnda furva Allen & Hoese, 1986
o Mogurnda kaifayama Allen & Jenkins, 1999
o Lake Kutubu mogurnda, Mogurnda kutubuensis Allen & Hoese, 1986
o Desert mogurnda, Mogurnda larapintae (Zietz, 1896)
o Kokoda mogurnda, Mogurnda lineata Allen & Hoese, 1991
o Mogurnda maccuneae Jenkins, Buston & Allen, 2000
o Mogurnda magna Allen & Renyaan, 1996
o Mogurnda malsmithi Allen & Jebb, 1993
o Mogurnda mbuta Allen & Jenkins, 1999
o Northern trout gudgeon, Mogurnda mogurnda (Richardson, 1844)
o Mogurnda mosa Jenkins, Buston & Allen, 2000
o Yellowbelly gudgeon, Mogurnda nesolepis (Weber, 1907)
o Kimberley mogurnda, Mogurnda oligolepis Allen & Jenkins, 1999
o Eastern mogurnda, Mogurnda orientalis Allen & Hoese, 1991
o Mogurnda pardalis Allen & Renyaan, 1996
o Moresby mogurnda, Mogurnda pulchra Horsthemke & Staeck, 1990
o Blotched mogurnda, Mogurnda spilota Allen & Hoese, 1986
o Dalhousie mogurnda, Mogurnda thermophila Allen & Jenkins, 1999
o Variegated mogurnda, Mogurnda variegata Nichols, 1951
o Striped mogurnda, Mogurnda vitta Allen & Hoese, 1986
o Mogurnda wapoga Allen, Jenkins & Renyaan, 1999
* Genus Odonteleotris
o Odonteleotris canina Bleeker, 1849
o Odonteleotris macrodon Bleeker, 1854
* Genus Ophieleotris
o Snakehead gudgeon, Ophieleotris aporos (Bleeker, 1854)
* Genus Ophiocara
o Ophiocara macrolepidota (Bloch, 1792)
o Northern mud gudgeon, Ophiocara porocephala (Valenciennes, 1837)
* Genus Oxyeleotris
o Oxyeleotris altipinna Allen & Renyaan, 1996
o Aru gudgeon, Oxyeleotris aruensis (Weber, 1911)
o Oxyeleotris caeca Allen, 1996
o Oxyeleotris expatria (Herre, 1927)
o Fimbriate gudgeon, Oxyeleotris fimbriata (Weber, 1907)
o Blackbanded gauvina, Oxyeleotris herwerdenii (Weber, 1910)
o Sentani gudgeon, Oxyeleotris heterodon (Weber, 1907)
o Sleepy cod, Oxyeleotris lineolata (Steindachner, 1867)
o Marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Bleeker, 1852)
o Poreless gudgeon, Oxyeleotris nullipora Roberts, 1978
o Fewpored gudgeon, Oxyeleotris paucipora Roberts, 1978
o Giant gudgeon, Oxyeleotris selheimi (Macleay, 1884)
o Oxyeleotris siamensis (Günther, 1861)
o Oxyeleotris urophthalmoides (Bleeker, 1853)
o Oxyeleotris urophthalmus (Bleeker, 1851)
o Paniai gudgeon, Oxyeleotris wisselensis Allen & Boeseman, 1982
* Genus Parviparma
o Parviparma straminea Herre, 1927
* Genus Philypnodon
o Flathead gudgeon, Philypnodon grandiceps (Krefft, 1864)
o Philypnodon macrostomus Hoese & Reader, 2006.[6]
* Genus Philypnus
o Philypnus macrolepis Wu & Ni, 1986
* Genus Pogoneleotris
o Pogoneleotris heterolepis (Günther, 1869)
* Genus Prionobutis
o Prionobutis dasyrhynchus (Günther, 1868)
o Small-eyed loter, Prionobutis microps (Weber, 1907)
* Genus Ratsirakia
o Ratsirakia legendrei (Pellegrin, 1919)
* Genus Tateurndina
o Tateurndina ocellicauda Nichols, 1955
* Genus Thalasseleotris
o Marine gudgeon, Thalasseleotris adela Hoese & Larson, 1987
* Genus Typhleotris
o Typhleotris madagascariensis Petit, 1933
o Typhleotris pauliani Arnoult, 1959


1. ^ a b Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D.: The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, p 264, 1997, ISBN 978-0-86542-256-8
2. ^ Hoedeman, J.: Naturalist's Guide to Freshwater Aquarium Fish, Elsevier, pp 1096-1099, 1974, ISBN 978-0-8069-3722-9
3. ^ Riehl R. & Baensch H: Aquarium Atlas (vol. 1), p. 832, Voyageur Press, 1996, ISBN 978-3-88244-050-8
4. ^ Riehl R. & Baensch H: Aquarium Atlas (vol. 2), pp 1063-1073, Microcosm Ltd, 1997, ISBN 978-1-890087-06-7
5. ^ Thacker & Pezold; Pezold, Frank; Suttkus, Royal D.; Buth, D. (2006). "Redescription of the dwarf Neotropical eleotrid genus Leptophilypnus (Teleostei: Gobioidei), including a new species and comments on Microphilypnus.". Copeia 2006 (3): 494ff. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2006)2006[489:ROTDNE]2.0.CO;2.
6. ^ Hoese & Reader (2006). "Description of a new species of dwarf Philypnodon (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Eleotridae) from south-eastern Australia.". Memoirs of Museum Victoria 63 (1): 15–19. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930163651/http://www.museum.vic.gov.au/memoirs/docs/63_1_Hoese_Reader.pdf.

External links

* Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2006). "Eleotridae" in FishBase. March 2006 version.

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