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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Classis: Chondrichthyes
Subclassis: Elasmobranchii
Superordo: †Xenacanthimorpha
Ordo: †Xenacanthiformes
Familiae: †Diplodoselachidae – †Orthacanthidae – †Xenacanthidae
Name

Xenacanthiformes Berg, 1955
Synonyms

Xenacanthida

References

Berg, L. S. & Svetovidov, A. N. 1955. Systema ribovraznich i rib nine jivuchtchich i iskopaemich. Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 20: 1–286. Reference page.

Xenacanthida (or Xenacanthiforms) is an order of prehistoric sharks that appeared during the Lower Carboniferous period. The order includes the families Xenacanthidae, Diplodoselachidae, and Orthacanthidae. The most notable members of the group are the genera Xenacanthus and Orthacanthus. Some Xenacanthida may have grown to lengths of 5 m (16 ft).[1] Most forms had large serrated spines extending backwards from the neck. Xenacanthus had characteristic teeth. Most xenacanths died out at the end of the Permian in the Permian Mass Extinction, with only a few forms surviving into the Triassic period. They were native to freshwater, marginal marine and shallow marine habitats.[2]

The foundation of the tooth is prolonged lingually with a circlet button and a basal tubercle on the oral and aboral surfaces individually. Xenacanthida’s teeth are famed by articulated bones, cephalic vertebrae and isolated teeth and found global in each aquatic and clean environment. The family Xenacanthidae consist of five genera that are Xenacanthus, Triodus, Plicatodus, Mooreodontus and Wurdigneria; all of these are distinguished by cross sections of the points, crown center, length of the median edge, type of vertical cristae, and microscopic anatomy. These kinds of fishes are largely marked from Paleozoic remains and their diversity cut drastically throughout the period of their extinction.

Xenacanths are divided into two groups based on dental characteristics. Group one has tricuspid crown containing two stout, slightly diverging lateral cusps pointing in the same direction, a high median cusp, with a crown-base angle almost at 90 degrees, a large, rounded, apical button with several foramina and multiple, 8-9 coarse vertical cristae on all the cusps. Group two has bicuspid crowns with two upright, asymmetric cusps, where the medial cusp is thicker than the distal one, and consistently lacks a median cusp.[3]
Taxonomy

Family: Diplodoselachidae Dick, 1981
Genus: Diplodoselache Dick, 1981
Genus: Dicentrodus Traquair, 1888
Genus: Hagenoselache Hampe & Heidkte, 1997
Family: Orthacanthidae Heyler & Poplin 1989
Genus: Orthacanthus Agassiz, 1843
Family: Xenacanthidae Fritsch, 1889
Genus: Mooreodontus Ginter et al., 2010 North America, Europe, South America, Australia, India, Triassic
Genus: Plicatodus Hampe, 1995
Genus: Triodus Jordan, 1849
Genus: Xenacanthus Beyrich, 1848
incertae sedis
Genus: Anodontacanthus Davis, 1881
Tikiodontus Bhat, Ray & Datta, 2018. Tiki Formation, India, Late Triassic

References

Beck, Kimberley G.; oler-Gijón, Rodrigo; Carlucci, Jesse R.; Willis, Ray E. (December 2014). "Morphology and Histology of Dorsal Spines of the Xenacanthid Shark Orthacanthus platypternus from the Lower Permian of Texas, USA: Palaeobiological and Palaeoenvironmental Implications". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 61 (1): 97–117. doi:10.4202/app.00126.2014
Pauliv, Victor E.; Martinelli, Agustín G.; Francischini, Heitor; Dentzien-Dias, Paula; Soares, Marina B.; Schultz, Cesar L.; Ribeiro, Ana M. (December 2017). "The first Western Gondwanan species of Triodus Jordan 1849: A new Xenacanthiformes (Chondrichthyes) from the late Paleozoic of Southern Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 80: 482–493. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2017.09.007.

Bhat, M. S., Ray, S., & Datta, P. (2018). A new assemblage of freshwater sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) from the Upper Triassic of India. Geobios, 51(4), 269-283. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2018.06.004

Further reading
Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Ray, Sanghamitra; Datta, P.M. (September 2018). "A new assemblage of freshwater sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) from the Upper Triassic of India". Geobios. 51 (4): 269–283. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2018.06.004.
Huttenlocker, Adam K.; Henrici, Amy; John Nelson, W.; Elrick, Scott; Berman, David S; Schlotterbeck, Tyler; Sumida, Stuart S. (June 2018). "A multitaxic bonebed near the Carboniferous–Permian boundary (Halgaito Formation, Cutler Group) in Valley of the Gods, Utah, USA: Vertebrate paleontology and taphonomy". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 499: 72–92. Bibcode:2018PPP...499...72H. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.03.017.

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