Hellenica World

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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnums (Whittaker & Margulis, 1978): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Protista
Regnums (Cavalier-Smith, 1981): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Chromista - Protozoa
Supergroups (Cavalier-Smith, 2009): Bikonta - Unikonta
[list of supergroups after Cavalier-Smith (2009: 26, 'There are only two eukaryote supergroups: unikonts and bikonts...')]

To place: Picozoa

Contents

1 Taxonavigation
2 Name
3 Alternative classifications
3.1 Whittaker & Margulis (1978)
3.2 Cavalier-Smith (1981)
3.3 Möhn (1984)
3.4 Corliss (1984)
3.5 Corliss (1994)
3.6 Margulis (1996)
3.7 Hausmann et al. (1996)
3.8 Patterson (1999)
3.9 Hausmann et al. (2003)
3.10 Adl et al. (2005)
3.11 Cavalier-Smith (2009)
3.12 Adl et al. (2012)
4 References
4.1 Links
5 Vernacular names

Name

Eukaryota Chatton, 1925
Alternative classifications
Whittaker & Margulis (1978)

From Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms.

"prokaryotes"
Monera
"eukaryotes" (to confirm original spelling used)
Protista
Fungi
Animalia
Plantae

Cavalier-Smith (1981)

From Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?

Eukaryota

Fungi
Eufungi
Ciliofungi
Animalia
Parazoa
Mesozoa
Metazoa
Biliphyta
Viridiplantae
Euglenozoa
Protozoa
Chromista
Cryptophyta
Chromophyta

Möhn (1984)

From System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen, [1].

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

Suprakingdom Aconta
Suprakingdom Contophora
Suprakingdom Cormobionta
Suprakingdom Animalia (Metazoa)

Corliss (1984)

From The kingdoms of organisms: from a microscopist’s point of view.

Superkingdom Eukaryota

Kingdom Animalia
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Protista

Corliss (1994)

From An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.

Empire Eukaryota

Kingdom Archezoa
Kingdom Protozoa
Kingdom Chromista
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia

Margulis (1996)

From Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life [2].

Eukarya (= Eukaryotae)

Protoctista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

Hausmann et al. (1996)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hülsmann. Protozoology. Thieme Verlag; New York, 1996. [3]

Empire Eukaryota

Kingdom Microspora
Phylum Microspora
Class Rudimicrosporea
Class Microsporea
Kingdom Mastigota
Subkingdom Archamoebaea
Phylum Karyoblasta
Subkingdom Dimastigota
Superphylum Tetramastigota
Phylum Retortamonada
Class Retortamonadea
Class Diplomonadea
Phylum Axostylata
Class Oxymonadae
Class Parabasalea
Order Trichomonadida
Order Polymonadida
Order Hypermastigida
Superphylum Metakaryota
Phylum Euglenozoa
Subphylum Euglenida
Class Euglenoidea
Class Hemimastigophorea
Subphylum Kinetoplasta
Class Bodonea
Class Trypanosomatidea
Subphylum Pseudociliata
Phylum Heterolobosa
Class Schizopyrenidea
Class Acrasea
Phylum Dictyostela
Phylum Protostela
Phylum Myxogastra
Phylum Chromista
Subphylum Prymnesiomonada
Subphylum Cryptomonada
Subphylum Heterokonta
Class Proteromonadea
Class Opalinea
Class Chrysomonadea
Class Heteromonadea
Class Labyrinthulea
Class Raphidomonadea
Class Plasmodiophorea
Class Bicosoecidea
Phylum Alveolata
Subphylum Dinoflagellata
Subphylum Apicomplexa
Class Gregarinea
Class Coccidea
Class Haematozoea
Subphylum Ciliophora
Superclass Postciliodesmatophora
Class Karyorelictea
Class Spirotrichea
Subclass Heterotrichea
Subclass Oligotrichia
Subclass Stichotrichia
Subclass Hypotrichia
Superclass Rabdophora
Class Prostomatea
Class Litostomatea
Subclass Haptoria
Subclass Trichostomatia
Superclass Cyrtophora
Class Phyllopharyngia
Subclass Phyllopharyngia
Subclass Chonotrichia
Subclass Suctoria
Class Nassophorea
Class Oligohymenophorea
Subclass Hymenostomatia
Subclass Peritrichia
Subclass Astomatia
Subclass Apostomatia
Class Colpodea
Phylum Choanoflagellata
Phylum Chlorophyta
Class Prasinomonadea
Metakaryota incertae sedis
Amoebozoa
Lobosea
Gymnamoebia
Testacealobosia
Acarpomyxea
Filosea
Granuloreticulosa
Athalamea
Monothalamea
Foraminiferea
Actinopoda
Acantharea
Polycystinea
Phaeodarea
Heliozoea
Ascetospora
Haplosporea
Paramyxea
Myxozoa


Patterson (1999)

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes.

"Eukaryotic taxa without known sister groups"
Acantharea
Actinophryids
Alveolates
Ancyromonas
Apusomonads
Biomyxa
Caecitellus
Carpediemonas
Centroheliozoa
Cercomonads
Chlorarachniophytes
Coelosporidium
Collodictyon
Copromyxids
Cryothecomonas
Cryptomonads
Desmothoracids
Dimorphids
Diphylleia
Diplomonads
Discocelis
Ebriids
Ellobiopsids
Entamoebidae
Euglenozoa
Fonticula
Glaucophytes
Granuloreticulosa
Gymnophrea
Gymnosphaerida
Haplosporids
Haptophytes
Heterolobosea
Hyperamoeba
Jakobids
Kathablepharids
Komokiacea
Luffisphaera
Microsporidia
Ministeria
Multicilia
Nephridiophagids
Nucleariidae
Opisthokonts
Oxymonads
Parabasalids
Paramyxea
Pelobionts
Phaeodarea
Phagodinium
Phalansterium
Plasmodiophorids
Polycystinea
Pseudodendromonads
Pseudospora
Ramicristates
Red algae
Reticulomyxa
Retortamonads
Rosette agent
Spironemidae
Spongomonads
Stephanopogon
Sticholonche
Stramenopiles
Telonema
Thaumatomonads
Trimastix
Vampyrellids
Viridaeplantae
Xenophyophores

Hausmann et al. (2003)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Phylum Tetramastigota Hulsmann & Hausmann, 1994
Phylum Discicristata Cavalier-Smith, 1998
Phylum Hemimastigophora Foissner et al., 1988
Phylum Pseudociliata Corliss & Lipscomb, 1985
Phylum Chromista Cavalier-Smith, 1987
Phylum Alveolata Cavalier-Smith, 1992
Phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998
Phylum Foraminifera d'Orbigny, 1828 (= Granuloreticulosa)
Phylum Biliphyta Cavalier-Smith, 1981
Phylum Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981 (= Chlorobionta)
Phylum Amoebozoa Luhe, 1913
Phylum Opistokonta Cavalier-Smith & Chao, 1995
Eukaryota incertae sedis

Actinopoda Calkins, 1902
Paramyxea Levine, 1979

Adl et al. (2005)

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists.

Eukaryota

Amoebozoa
Opisthokonta
Rhizaria
Archaeplastida
Chromalveolata
Cryptophyceae
Haptophyta
Stramenopiles
Excavata
Incertae sedis Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (2009)

From Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations.

Eukaryota

Bikonta
Apusozoa
Excavata
Rhizaria
Corticata
Plantae (Archaeplastida)
Chromalveolata
Chromista
Alveolata
Unikonta
Amoebozoa
Opisthokonta
Choanozoa
Animalia
Fungi

[Note: Protists not included in the groups Plantae, Chromista, Animalia or Fungi belong in the Protozoa.]
Adl et al. (2012)

From The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes,

Eukaryota

Amoebozoa
Opisthokonta
Excavata
Sar
Stramenopiles
Alveolata
Rhizaria
Archaeplastida
Incertae sedis Eukaryota

References

Adl, S.M. et al. 2005: The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 52: 399-451. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x PDF
Baldauf, S.L. 2003: The deep roots of eukaryotes. Science, 300: 1703–1706.
Baldauf, S.L., Roger, A.J., Wenk-Siefert, I., & Doolittle, W.F. (2000). A kingdom-level phylogeny of eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290: 972-977.
Becerra, A., Delaye, L., Islas, S., & Lazcano, A. (2007). The very early stages of biological evolution and the nature of the last common ancestor of the three major cell domains. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 361-379.
Burki, F.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Minge, M.; Skjæveland, A.; Nikolaev, S.I.; Jakobsen, K.S.; Pawlowski, J. 2007: Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups. PLoS ONE, 2: e790. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000790
Burki, F.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Pawlowski, J. 2008: Phylogenomics reveals a new 'megagroup' including most photosynthetic eukaryotes. Biology letters, 4: 366-369. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0224 PDF
Cavalier-Smith, T. 1981: Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine? Biosystems, 14: 461-481.
Cavalier-Smith, T. 2009: Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 56: 26-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x
Chatton, É. (1925). Pansporella perplexa, amoebiens à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflections sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 8: 5-84.
Goloboff, P.A.; Catalano, S.A.; Mirande, J.M.; Szumik, C.A.; Arias, J.S.; Källersjö, M.; Farris, J.S. 2009: Phylogenetic analysis of 73 060 taxa corroborates major eukaryotic groups. Cladistics, 25: 211-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00255.x
Keeling, P.J.; Burger, G.; Durnford, D.G.; Lang, B.F.; Lee, R.W.; Pearlman, R.E.; Roger, A.J.; Gray, M.W. 2005: The tree of eukaryotes. Trends in ecology and evolution, 20: 670–676. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.09.005 PDF
Minge, M.A.; Silberman, J.D.; Orr, R.J.S.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Burki, F.; Skjæveland, A.; Jakobsen, K.S. 2009: Evolutionary position of breviate amoebae and the primary eukaryote divergence. Proceedings of the Royal Society (B), 276: 597-604. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1358
Möhn, E. 1984: System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen. I. Physikalische, chemische und biologische Evolution. Prokaryonta. Eukaryonta. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
Moreira, D., von der Heyden, S., Bass, D., López-García, P., Chao, E., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2007). Global eukaryote phylogeny: combined small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and Excavata. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 255-266.
Parfrey, L.W.; Barbero, E.; Lasser, E.; Dunthorn, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Patterson, D.J.; Katz, L.A. 2006: Evaluating support for the current classification of eukaryotic diversity. PLoS Genetics, 2(12): e220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220
Roger, A.J.; Simpson, A.G.B. 2009: Evolution: revisiting the root of the eukaryote tree. Current biology, 19: R165-R167. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.032
Simpson, A.G.B.; Lang, B.F.; Dacks, J.B.; Leigh, J.W.; Hug, L.; Roger, A.J.; Hampl, V. 2009: Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups". PNAS, 106: 3859-3864.
Steenkamp, E. T., Wright, J., & Baldauf, S. L. (2006). The protistan origins of animals and fungi. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (1): 93-106.
Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. 1978: Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.
Woese, C., Kandler, O., & Wheelis, M. (1990). Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (12): 4576-4579.
Yoon, H.S.; Grant, J.; Tekle, Y.I.; Wu, M.; Chaon, B.C.; Cole, J.C.; Logsdon, J.M., jr.; Patterson, D.J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Katz, L.A. 2008: Broadly sampled multigene trees of eukaryotes. BMC evolutionary biology, 8:14. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-14 PDF

Links

Wegener Parfrey, Laura 2009. Taxon page for Eukaryota. In: The ATOL eutree hypothesis First Created: 2009-07-04T15:11:59Z. Last Updated: 2009-07-04T15:14:20Z.
Keeling, Patrick, Brian S. Leander, and Alastair Simpson 2009. Eukaryotes. Eukaryota, Organisms with nucleated cells. Version 12 March 2009 in The Tree of Life Web Project
Tree of Eukaryotes
Eukarya

Vernacular names
Alemannisch: Eukaryote
العربية: حقيقية النوى
Boarisch: Eikaryóten / Eikaryótner
bosanski: Eukarioti
български: Еукариоти
català: Eucariota
dansk: Eukaryoter
Deutsch: Eukaryoten, Eukaryonten
eesti: Eukarüoodid
Ελληνικά: Ευκαρυώτες
English: eukaryotes
español: Eucariontes
Esperanto: Eŭkariotoj
فارسی: هسته داران
français: Eucaryotes
한국어: 진핵생물
Հայերեն: Կորիզավորներ
hrvatski: Eukarioti
interlingua: Eucaryotes
íslenska: Heilkjörnungar
italiano: Eucarioti
עברית: איקריוטיים
Latina: Eucaryota
latviešu: Eikariots
Lëtzebuergesch: Eukaryota
lietuvių: Eukariotai
magyar: Eukarióták
македонски: Еукариоти
Nederlands: Eukaryoten
日本語: 真核生物ドメイン
Nordfriisk: Eukarioten
norsk bokmål: Eukaryoter
occitan: Eucariòtas
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សុធញ្ញៈ
polski: Jądrowce
português: Eucariota
português do Brasil: Eucarionte
română: Eucariote
русский: Ядерные
shqip: Eukariotët
slovenčina: Eukaryoty
suomi: Aitotumaiset
svenska: Eukaryoter
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nhân chuẩn
Türkçe: Ökaryotlar , Genetik malzemeleri zarla çevrili bir (veya birkaç) çekirdek içinde yer alanlar
українська: Еукаріоти
中文: 真核域

Source: Wikispecies , "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

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