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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Acarosporomycetidae
Ordo: Acarosporales

Familia: Acarosporaceae
Genus: Acarospora
Species: A. admissa – A. aeginaica – A. aeruginosa – A. affinis – A. africana – A. albertii – A. albida – A. alboatra – A. albocaesia – A. albomarginata – A. algerica – A. algicola – A. almquistii – A. altissima – A. altoandina – A. alutacea – A. amabilis – A. americana – A. amphibola – A. anatolica – A. angolensis – A. angusta – A. anomala – A. anziana – A. applanata – A. arenacea – A. arenosa – A. areolata – A. argaei – A. argillacea – A. asahinae – A. aspera – A. asperata – A. assimulans – A. atomariospora – A. atrata – A. austriaca – A. austroafricana – A. austroshetlandica – A. badiofusca – A. bella – A. belonioides – A. benedarensis – A. berica – A. bicolor – A. bohlinii – A. boliviana – A. bornmuelleri – A. boulderensis – A. brasiliensis – A. brattiae – A. brevilobata – A. brodoana – A. brouardii – A. brunneola – A. bulgarica – A. bullata – A. bylii – A. caesiocinerea – A. caesiofusca – A. calcarea – A. calcivora – A. californica – A. calviniensis – A. canadensis – A. capensis – A. carnegiei – A. cartilaginea – A. castanea – A. castaneocarpa – A. catamarcae – A. cervina – A. cervinoides – A. cesatiana – A. chalcophila – A. charidema – A. chilensis – A. chrysocardia – A. chrysops – A. cineracea – A. cinerascens – A. cinerea – A. cinereoalba – A. citrina – A. clauzadeana – A. clavus – A. coeruleoalba – A. collemacea – A. coloradiana – A. commixta – A. compacta – A. complanata – A. confusa – A. congregata – A. contigua – A. contraria – A. convoluta – A. crassilabra – A. cretica – A. crozalsii – A. dealbata – A. deceptionis – A. degenerans – A. deplanans – A. deplanatula – A. depressa – A. deserticola – A. desolata – A. discreta – A. discurrens – A. dissecta – A. dissipata – A. dolophana – A. duriana – A. durietzii – A. elaphina – A. elbursensis – A. elegans – A. elevata – A. emergens – A. endocarpea – A. engadinensis – A. epilutescens – A. epithallina – A. erythrocarpa – A. erythrophora – A. eucarpa – A. euganea – A. evoluta – A. exigua – A. extenuata – A. fennica – A. ferdinandii – A. finckei – A. flava – A. flavisparsa – A. flavocordia – A. flavorubens – A. franconica – A. fremyi – A. freyi – A. friesii – A. frigidodeserticola – A. fulva – A. fulvoviridula – A. fuscata – A. fuscescens – A. fuscohepatica – A. fuscorufa – A. gelatinosa – A. gallica – A. geogena – A. geophila – A. germanica – A. glaucocarpa – A. glaucocarpoides – A. glaucopsina – A. glebosa – A. globiformis – A. glypholecioides – A. gobiensis – A. granatensis – A. groenlandica – A. grumulosa – A. guadeloupensis – A. gwynnii – A. gypsi-deserti – A. gyrodes – A. gyrosa – A. handelii – A. hellbomii – A. helvetica – A. heppii – A. heufleriana – A. hilaris – A. hospitans – A. hostilis – A. hueana – A. hultingii – A. hungarica – A. hysgina – A. imbricatula – A. immersa – A. immixta – A. impressula – A. inaequalis – A. incertula – A. incolor – A. incusa – A. indica – A. initialis – A. insculpta – A. insignis – A. insolata – A. instrata – A. intercedens – A. interjecta – A. intermixta – A. interposita – A. interrupta – A. interspersa – A. intrusa – A. invadens – A. irregularis – A. islandica – A. isotorquensis – A. janae – A. japonica – A. jenisejensis – A. kidderi – A. knowlesii – A. kordofanica – A. laeta – A. laevigata – A. lagascae – A. lamyi – A. laqueata – A. lavicola – A. lepidota – A. lesdainii – A. livida – A. longispora – A. lorentzii – A. lucida – A. luederitzensis – A. lurida – A. lyngei – A. maccarthyi – A. macrocarpa – A. macrocyclos – A. macrospora – A. malmeana – A. marcii – A. marina – A. maroccana – A. massiliensis – A. melanoplaca – A. mendozana – A. meridionalis – A. mexicana – A. microcarpa – A. microphthalma – A. miskcolensis – A. modenensis – A. molybdina – A. monacensis – A. mongolica – A. montana – A. moraviae – A. moreliana – A. multipunctata – A. murorum – A. nashii – A. negligens – A. nevadensis – A. nicolai – A. nigrocastanea – A. nigroleprosa – A. nigromarginata – A. nitida – A. nitrophila – A. nodulosa – A. novae-hollandiae – A. novae-zemliae – A. novomexicana – A. obnubila – A. obpallens – A. obscura – A. ocellata – A. ochrophana – A. oculata – A. oertendahlii – A. oligospora – A. orcuttii – A. oreophila – A. otagensis – A. oxytona – A. paupera – A. pelicyphoides – A. pelioscypha – A. peliscypha – A. peltastica – A. peltata – A. percaena – A. perexigua – A. perpulchra – A. persica – A. persimilis – A. petalina – A. photina – A. picea – A. piedmontensis – A. pitardii – A. placenta – A. placodiiformis – A. platycarpoides – A. pleiospora – A. pleistospora – A. plinthina – A. plumbeocaesia – A. polycarpa – A. porinoides – A. proletaria – A. pseudofuscata – A. punae – A. purpurascens – A. putoranica – A. pycnidophora – A. pyrenopsoides – A. pyrenuloides – A. radicans – A. radicata – A. rageotii – A. ramosa – A. reagens – A. regnelliana – A. rehmii – A. rhabarbarina – A. rhagadiosa – A. rhodesiae – A. rimosior – A. rimulosa – A. robiniae – A. romanica – A. rosulata – A. rouxii – A. rubicunda – A. rufa – A. rufidulocinerea – A. rufoalutacea – A. rufotestacea – A. rugosa – A. rugulosa – A. russa – A. rutilans – A. samoënsis – A. sandwicensis – A. sanguinescens – A. sarcogynoides – A. saxicola – A. saxonica – A. scaberrima – A. schleicheri – A. schorica – A. scotica – A. scrobiculata – A. scutula – A. sepincola – A. septentrionalis – A. sernanderi – A. sibirica – A. silesiaca – A. silicicola – A. similis – A. sinopica – A. siplei – A. skottsbergii – A. smaragdula – A. socialis – A. solitaria – A. sordida – A. sparsa – A. sparsinula – A. sparsiuscula – A. sphaerosperma – A. sphaerospora – A. spitzbergensis – A. stapfiana – A. steineri – A. steinii – A. stictica – A. strigata – A. subalbida – A. subbadia – A. subcastanea – A. subcontigua – A. subdispersa – A. subochracea – A. subpruinata – A. subrufula – A. subtersa – A. succedens – A. sulphurata – A. superans – A. superfusa – A. suprasedens – A. suzae – A. tasmanica – A. tasmaniensis – A. tavaresiana – A. tenebrica – A. tenuicorticata – A. tenuis – A. terrestris – A. terrigena – A. tersa – A. texana – A. thaeodes – A. thamnina – A. thelococcoides – A. theobaldii – A. theobromina – A. thermophila – A. tianshanica – A. tintickiana – A. toensbergii – A. tominiana – A. tongletii – A. tominiana – A. tongletii – A. toniniana – A. trachytica – A. trachyticola – A. transtagatana – A. tromsoënsis – A. truncata – A. tuberculata – A. tuberculifera – A. tuckerae – A. tucsonensis – A. tunetana – A. turjaënsis – A. tyleri – A. tyroliensis – A. umbilicata – A. umbrina – A. umensis – A. undata – A. urceolata – A. utahensis – A. valdobbiensis – A. variegata – A. varzinensis – A. vaucheri – A. veronensis – A. verruciformis – A. verrucigera – A. verruculosa – A. versicolor – A. vesuviana – A. viridula – A. vulcanica – A. wahlenbergii – A. washingtonensis – A. weldensis – A. wetmorei – A. williamsii – A. wilsonii – A. xanthophana – A. zahlbruckneri – A. zeravshanica
Name

Acarospora A.Massal., 1852
References

Massalongo, A.B. (1852) Ricerche sull'autonomia dei licheni crostosi e materiali pella loro naturale ordinazione. Tip. Frizerio\Verona. xiv, 2-207 pp.

Knudsen, K. (2004a) A preliminary study of Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii in California. Opuscula Philolichenum 1: 21–24. [1]

Knudsen, K. (2004b) A study of Acarosporas in the lichen flora of the Santa Cruz Peninsula by A.W.C.T. Herre. Bulletin of the California Lichen Society 11: 10–15. [2]

Knudsen, K. (2005) Acarospora epilutescens rediscovered. Opuscula Philolichenum 2: 11–13. [3]

Knudsen, K. (2007) Acarospora (pp. 1-38). In: Nash III, T.H., Gries, C., and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 3. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 567 pages.

Knudsen, K. (2010) Acarospora orcuttii (Acarosporaceae), a rare terricolous lichen from southern California. The Bryologist 113 (4): 713–716. (DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745.113.4.713)

Knudsen, K. and Lendemer, J.C. (2005) Changes and additions to the North American lichen flora - IV. Mycotaxon 93: 289–295. [4]

Knudsen, K; Lendemer, J.C. and Harris, R.C. (2011) Studies in lichens and lichenicolous fungi – no 15: miscellaneous notes on species from eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 9: 45–75. (PDF document)

Magnusson, A.H. (1924) New species of the genus Acarospora. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift\Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 18: 329–342.

Magnusson, A.H. (1924) A monograph of the Scandinavian species of the genus Acarospora. Kungl. Vetensk. Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar (Göteborg) ser. 4, 28: 1–150.

Magnusson, A.H. (1929) The yellow species of Acarospora in North America. Mycologia 21 :249-260.

Magnusson, A.H. (1929) [1930] A monograph of the genus Acarospora. Kongl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, Stockholm ser. 3 , 7: 1–400.

Magnusson, A.H. (1930) The lichen genus Acarospora in New Mexico. Meddelelser fran Göteborgs Botaniska Trädgard\Meddel. Göteborgs Bot. Trädgard 5: 55–72.

Magnusson, A.H. (1933) Supplement to the Monograph of the genus Acarospora. Annales de Cryptogamie Exotique\Ann. Crypt. Exot. 6: 13–48.

Magnusson, A.H. (1952) New crustaceous lichen species from North America. Acta Horti Gotoburgensis 19(1): 31–49.

Magnusson, A.H. (1956) A second supplement to the monograph of Acarospora with keys. Goteborgs Kungl. Vetensk.- & Vitterhets.-Samhalles Handl., sjatte foljden ser. B 6(17): 1–34.

Zahlbruckner, A. (1902) Diagnosen neuer und ungenügend beschriebener californischer Flechten. Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt\Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 13: 149–163.

Recent Literature on Lichens and Mattick's Literature Index

Vernacular names
English: Cracked lichens, Cobblestone lichens
日本語: ホウネンゴケ属

Acarospora is a genus of lichenized fungi in the family Acarosporaceae. Most species in the genus are crustose lichens that grow on rocks in open and arid places all over the world.[3] They may look like a cobblestone road or cracked up old paint, and are commonly called cobblestone lichens or cracked lichens,.[4]: 216 [5] They usually grow on rock (are "saxicolous"), but some grow on soil (terricolous) or on other lichens.[3][4]: 216  Some species in the genus are fungi that live as parasites on other lichens (lichenicolous fungi).[3] Acarospora is a widely distributed genus, with about 128 species according to a 2008 estimate.[6]

Species in Acarospora may be shiny as if covered with a glossy varnish, or dull and powdery looking. They have a diverse range of colors, from the brilliant yellow bright cobblestone lichen, to the dark reddish-brown mountain cobblestone lichen, or they can appear tan, gray, or white, from a dusty-looking coating (pruina).[4]: 216  They may grow in crustose forms like a warty surface (verrucose), like cracking-up old crust of paint (rimose), like a bunch of "islands" in a dry lake bed (areolate), like the flakes of cracking up paint are peeling up at the edges (sub-squamulous), or like the flakes are growing over others like scales (squamulous).

Description

They may grow as a warty crust (verrucose, a cracked crust rimose, or with the cracks separating island-like sections like in a dried lake (areolate – with the “islands” being called “areoles”).[3] The areolas may lift up at the edges (sub-squamulose), and these edges may overlap other areolas like scales (squamulose, with the areoles being called “squamules”).[3] The areoles may grow in lobes radiating from a center (placodioid. They may grow in irregular or indeterminate forms, sometimes with the areoles disconnected from each other and dispersed among other lichens.[3] Sometimes the squamules may be elevated with expansion of the mycelial base above the substrate ("gomphate"), or aside on “stems” called stipes, which are usually about usually half the diameter of areole.[3] The outer rim of the areola is usually down-turned.[3]

They may be shiny or dull, and in many shades from pale to blackish brown.[3] They may be smooth or rough (rugulose).[3] They may be different colors from brilliant yellow (from rhizocarpic acid) to brown to white.[3] They may or may not be covered with a powdery-looking surface (pruinose), which when present, may make them appear lighter in color, to almost white.[3]
Internal structure

Like other crustose lichens, their cross section is generally divided into three layers, the cortex, photobiont layer, and medulla, and generally without a lower cortex as in foliose lichens.[3] The cortex itself is usually differentiated, with three layers including a syncortex (sometimes absent),[citation needed] epinecral layer (sometimes absent,[citation needed] and eucortex, which is where the pigment is located in the upper parts.[3] The photobiont of Acarospora are algae in the genus Trebouxia.[7]
Fruiting structures

Each wart, areola, or squamule may have 0 to many apothecia.[3] The apothecia are usually immersed in the thallus.[3] Sometimes the apothecia are raised on a wart[citation needed] and surrounded by a margin of thallus-like tissue, sometimes with the margin being a true exciple.[3] The apothecia are usually immersed, and round to very irregular in shape.[4]: 216  The apothecal disc is round to squished and irregular, and ranges in colors: black, brown, red, or yellow, or in-between. The disc may be smooth or it may be rough. The asci range from being narrow to being club shaped (clavate). Spores are colorless, spherical to ellipsoid, and range from tens to hundreds per ascus.[4]: 216 
Taxonomy

The genus was published by Italian lichenologist Abramo Bartolommeo Massalongo in 1852, with the type species Acarospora schleicheri (originally described as Urceolaria schleicheri by Erik Acharius in 1810). Other species included by Massalongo in his original conception of the genus were A. chlorophana (now Pleopsidium chlorophanum), A. oxytona, A. cervina, A. smeragdula, and A. veronensis.[8]
Species

Yellow members of the genus may resemble members of Pleopsidium.[4]: 216  Non-yellow members may resemble members of Aspicilia.[4]: 216 

Species include:[9][10]

Acarospora affinis K. Knudsen
Acarospora americana H. Magn.
Acarospora asahinae H. Magn.
Acarospora badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr.
Acarospora boulderensis H. Magn.
Acarospora brattiae K. Knudsen
Acarospora brodoana K. Knudsen
Acarospora brouardii B. de Lesd.
Acarospora bullata H. Magn
Acarospora calcarea K. Knudsen
Acarospora canadensis H. Magn.
Acarospora cervina A. Massal.
Acarospora chrysops (Tuck.) H. Magn.
Acarospora clauzadeana (Llimona) Casares & Hafellner
Acarospora coloradiana H. Magn.
Acarospora complanata H. Magn.
Acarospora contigua H. Magn.
Acarospora elevata H. Magn.
Acarospora epilutescens Zahlbr.
Acarospora erythrophora H. Magn.
Acarospora flavisparsa V.J. Rico & Candan
Acarospora fuscata (Schrader) Arnold
Acarospora fuscescens H. Magn.
Acarospora glaucocarpa (Ach.) Körber
Acarospora heufleriana Körber
Acarospora hilaris (Dufour) Hue
Acarospora impressula Th. Fr.
Acarospora interjecta H. Magn.
Acarospora janae K. Knudsen
Acarospora maccarthyi K. Knudsen & Kocourk.
Acarospora macrospora (Hepp) A. Massal. ex Bagl.
Acarospora moenium (Vainio) Räsänen
Acarospora molybdina (Wahlenb.) Trevisan
Acarospora nashii K. Knudsen
Acarospora nevadensis H. Magn.
Acarospora nicolai B. de Lesd.
Acarospora nitrophila H. Magn.
Acarospora nodulosa (Dufour) Hue
Acarospora novomexicana H. Magn.
Acarospora obnubila H. Magn.
Acarospora obpallens (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr.
Acarospora oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold
Acarospora orcuttii K. Knudsen
Acarospora oreophila K. Knudsen
Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr.
Acarospora piedmontensis K. Knudsen
Acarospora pseudofuscata Sipman
Acarospora robiniae K. Knudsen
Acarospora rosulata (Th. Fr.) H. Magn.
Acarospora rouxii K. Knudsen, Elix & Reeb
Acarospora rugulosa Körber
Acarospora saepincola H. Magn.
Acarospora schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal.
Acarospora scotica Hue
Acarospora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körber
Acarospora socialis H. Magn.
Acarospora sparsa H. Magn.
Acarospora sphaerosperma R. C. Harris & K. Knudsen
Acarospora stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue
Acarospora stictica K. Knudsen & Elix
Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta
Acarospora subrufula (Nyl.) H. Olivier
Acarospora succedens H. Magn.
Acarospora superfusca H. Magn.
Acarospora thamnina (Tuck.) Herre
Acarospora thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
Acarospora toensbergii K. Knudsen & Kocourk.
Acarospora tongletii Hue
Acarospora tuckerae K. Knudsen
Acarospora umbilicata Bagl.
Acarospora veronensis A. Massal.
Acarospora verruciformis H. Magn.
Acarospora wetmorei K. Knudsen

Chemistry

Acarospora species often lack secondary metabolites. Each wart, areola, or squamule may each have 0 to many apothecia.[3] Some have norstictic acid, gyrophoric acid, or fatty acids. Each wart, areola, or squamule, may each have 0 to many apothecia.[3] Yellow species have rhizocarpic acid, a pigment that makes them yellow. Each wart, areola, or squamule, may each have 0 to many apothecia.[3]
Range and habitat

They grow all over the world, but usually in open arid habitats.[3] They can grow on acidic rock and basic rock, or on soil.[3]
References

"Acarospora A. Massal., Ricerche sull'autonomia dei licheni crostosi: 27, 1852". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
Tornabene F. (1849). "Lichenographia Sicula". Atti della Accademia Giornia di Scienze Naturali Catania. 2: 22.
Acarospora, Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3, Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bugartz, F., (eds.) 2001, [1]
Field Guide to California Lichens, Stephen Sharnoff, Yale University Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-300-19500-2
Name Search Results for Scientific Name Acarospora, USDA
Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
Thomson JW. (1984). American Arctic Lichens: The Microlichens. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-299-13460-0.
Massalongo AB. (1852). Ricerche sull'autonomia dei licheni crostosi (in Italian). Verona: Frizerio. p. 27.
Esslinger, T. L. "A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-Forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada, Version 22". Opuscula Philolichenum. 17: 6–268. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
"Search: Acarospora". Species Fungorum. Retrieved 11 January 2019.

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