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Acacia senegal - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-004

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales

Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Caesalpinioideae
Tribus: Acacieae
Genus: Senegalia
Species: Senegalia senegal
Varieties: S. s. var. kerensis – S. s. var. leiorachis – S. s. var. rostrata – S. s. var. senegal
Name

Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Sci. Surv. Porto Rico & Virgin Islands 5: 538. (1930)
Synonyms

Basionym
Mimosa senegal L., Sp. Pl. 1: 521. (1753)
Homotypic
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Sp. Pl. Editio quarta 4(2): 1077. (1806)
Acacia senegalensis (Houtt.) Roberty (1948)
Acacia senegal var. rupestris (Stocks ex Boiss.) Roberty (1948)
Heterotypic
Acacia platyosprion (Chiov.) Chiov. (1932)
Mimosa senegalensis Houtt. (1774)
Acacia verek Guill. & Perr. (1832) nom. illeg.
Acacia senegal var. verek Roberty (1948)
Acacia rupestris Stocks ex Boiss. (1872)
Acacia virchowiana Vatke & Hildebr. (1880)
Acacia senegal var. typica Fiori (1911)
Acacia senegal var. pseudoglaucophylla Chiov. (1916)
Acacia pseudoglaucophylla Chiov. (1916)
Acacia pseudoglauca Chiov. (1932)
Acacia cufodontii Chiov. (1939)
Acacia senegal var. platyosprion Chiov. (1932)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Southern Africa
Regional: Tropical
Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe
Introduced into:
Haiti, Leeward Is., Taiwan

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Britton, N.L. 1930. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 6: 538.

Additional references

Kyalangalilwa, B., Boatwright, J.S., Daru, B.H., Maurin, O. & Bank, M. 2013. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 172(4): 500–523. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12047 Open access Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Senegalia senegal in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Aug 21. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Senegalia senegal. Published online. Accessed: Aug 21 2019.
Tropicos.org 2019. Senegalia senegal. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Aug 21.
Catalogue of Life: 2020 Annual Checklist
Senegalia senegal – Taxon details on World Wide Wattle.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Senegalia senegal in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Slaploot
azərbaycanca: Seneqal akasiyası
bamanankan: Dɔ̀nkɔri
čeština: Akácie senegalská
dansk: Gummi-Akacie
Deutsch: Verek-Akazie
English: Gum arabic tree
eesti: Kummiakaatsia
Fulfulde: Pattuki
suomi: Kumiakaasia
français: Gommier blanc
galego: Acacia do Senegal
magyar: Arabmézgafa
日本語: アラビアゴムノキ
polski: Akacja senegalska
Ikinyarwanda: Umukonji
Soomaaliga: Cadaad
Türkçe: Arap zamkı

Senegalia senegal (also known as Acacia senegal) is a small thorny deciduous tree from the genus Senegalia, which is known by several common names, including gum acacia, gum arabic tree, Sudan gum and Sudan gum arabic. In parts of India, it is known as Kher or Khor.[2] It is native to semi-desert regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as Oman, Pakistan, and west coastal India. It grows to a height of 5–12 metres (16-40'), with a trunk up to 30 cm (1') in diameter.[3] Sudan is the source of the world's highest quality gum arabic, known locally as hashab gum in contrast to the related, but inferior, gum arabic from Red acacia or talah gum.[4]

Uses
Gum arabic
A Gum acacia tree photographed at Taljai Hills, Pune
Senegalia Senegal (Kummat) tree in Jodhpur, Thadiya village.

The tree is of great economic importance for the gum arabic it produces which is used as a food additive, in crafts, and as a cosmetic. The gum is drained from cuts in the bark, and an individual tree will yield 200 to 300 grams (7 to 10 oz). Eighty percent of the world's gum arabic is produced in Sudan.[5] The Chauhatan area of Barmer district in Rajasthan is also famous for gum production, this is called कुम्मट[6] (Kummat) in local language there.
Forage

New foliage is very useful as forage.[7] Leaves and pods of S. senegal are browsed by domestic and wild ruminants.[8]
Food

Dried seeds are used as food by humans.[7]
Agriculture

Like other legume species, S. senegal fixes nitrogen within Rhizobia or nitrogen-fixing bacteria living in root nodules.[4] This nitrogen fixation enriches the poor soils where it is grown, allowing for the rotation of other crops in naturally nutrient-poor regions.
Senegalia senegal
Traditional uses

It has been reportedly used for its astringent properties, to treat bleeding, bronchitis, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, catarrh, gonorrhea, leprosy, typhoid fever and upper respiratory tract infections.[7][unreliable medical source?][9]
Rope

Roots near the surface of the ground are quite useful in making all kinds of very strong ropes and cords. The tree bark is also used to make rope.[7]
Wood

The wood of S. senegal can be used to make handles for tools, and parts for weaving looms.[7] It is also valued as firewood and can be used to produce charcoal.[8]
Chemistry

S. senegal contains hentriacontane, a solid, long-chain alkane hydrocarbon. The leaf also contains the psychoactive alkaloid dimethyltryptamine.[10]
See also

List of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids
List of psychoactive plants

References

"Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. — the Plant List".
Pervez, Amjad; Ahmad, Syed Muzaffar; Lathiya, Shaher Bano; Khadijah, Erum (2009). "Food Habits of the Indian Crested Porcupine, Hystrix indica in Sindh, Pakistan". Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 41 (4): 321. ISSN 0030-9923. ProQuest 992958322.
World Agroforestry Centre Archived 2007-05-15 at the Wayback Machine
Suliman, Mohamed Osman (2011). The Darfur Conflict : Geography or Institutions. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-88598-0.
"Gum arabic in Sudan: production and socio-economic aspects, United Nations Food & Agricultural Organisation"
"हिंदी खबर, Latest News in Hindi, हिंदी समाचार, ताजा खबर". Patrika (in Hindi). Retrieved 7 December 2020.
"Acacia senegal". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2017-08-03.
Heuzé V., Thiollet H., Tran G., Hassoun P., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2016. Gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/342
Wren, R.C. (1923). Potter's Cylopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London: Potter & Clark. p. 2.
Khalil, S.K.W. & Elkheir, Y.M. 1975. “Dimethyltryptamine from the leafs of certain Acacia species of Northern Sudan.” Lloydia 38(3):176-177.

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