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Acer campestre

Acer campestre (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Sapindales

Familia: Sapindaceae
Subfamilia: Hippocastanoideae
Tribus: Acereae
Genus: Acer
Species: Acer campestre
Subspecies: A. c. subsp. campestre – A. c. subsp. leiocarpum
Name

Acer campestre L., Sp. Pl.: 1055 (1753).
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 1055. Reference page.
Komarov, V.L. et al. (eds.). 1934–1964. Flora SSSR. 30 vols. Moscow/Leningrad: Botanicheskii institut, Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR. Reference page.
Davis, P.H. (ed.) 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. 9 vols. + Supplement. University Press, Edinburgh. Reference page.
Abdulina, S.A., 1999. Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana. Checklist of Vascular Plants of Kazakhstan. 187 pp. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan. ISBN 9965-01-189-3 DJVU Reference page.
Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. 2011. Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du Nord. Volume 2: Dicotyledoneae: Acanthaceae – Asteraceae. Conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève, ISBN 978-2-8277-0123-0, 428 pp. PDF Reference page.

Crowley, D. & Rivers, M.C. 2017. Acer campestre. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. IUCN Red List Category: Least Concern. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T193523A2241515.en.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Acer campestre. Published online. Accessed: 20 August 2019.

Vernacular names
aragonés: Azirón blanco
العربية: قيقب حقلي
беларуская: Клён палявы
български: Клен
bosanski: Klen
català: Auró blanc
čeština: Javor babyka
Cymraeg: Masarnen Fach
dansk: Navr
Deutsch: Feldahorn
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Opi
English: Field Maple
Esperanto: Kampa acero
español: Arce común
euskara: Astigar arrunt
فارسی: افرای پرچین
suomi: Niverävaahtera
français: Érable champêtre
galego: Pradairo campestre
hrvatski: Klen
hornjoserbsce: Pólny klon
magyar: Mezei juhar
հայերեն: թխկի դաշտային
íslenska: Hagahlynur
italiano: Acero campestre
日本語: コブカエデ
Lëtzebuergesch: Maasselter
lietuvių: Trakinis klevas
latviešu: Lauku kļava
македонски: Клен
кырык мары: Коэӓн ваштар
norsk bokmål: Naverlønn
Nederlands: Spaanse Aak
norsk nynorsk: Naverlønn
norsk: Naverlønn
occitan: Agast
ирон: Уисхъæд
polski: Klon polny
Piemontèis: Òbi
پنجابی: ویہڑہ میپل
português: Acer menor
română: Jugastru
русский: Клён полевой
slovenčina: Javor poľný
slovenščina: Maklen
српски / srpski: Клен
svenska: Naverlönn
Türkçe: Ova akçaağacı
українська: Клен польовий
walon: Doyåve

Acer campestre, known as the field maple,[2] is a flowering plant species in the family Sapindaceae. It is native to much of continental Europe, Britain, southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains. It has been widely planted, and is introduced outside its native range in Europe and areas of USA and Western Australia with suitable climate.

Description

It is a deciduous tree reaching 15–25 m (49–82 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, with finely fissured, often somewhat corky bark. The shoots are brown, with dark brown winter buds. The leaves are in opposite pairs, 5–16 cm (2.0–6.3 in) long (including the 3–9 cm (1.2–3.5 in) petiole) and 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) broad, with five blunt, rounded lobes with a smooth margin. Usually monoecious, the flowers are produced in spring at the same time as the leaves open, yellow-green, in erect clusters 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in) across, and are insect-pollinated. The fruit is a samara with two winged achenes aligned at 180°, each achene is 8–10 mm (0.31–0.39 in) wide, flat, with a 2 cm (0.79 in) wing.[3][4]

The two varieties, not accepted as distinct by all authorities, are:[3][5]

Acer campestre var. campestre - downy fruit
Acer campestre var. leiocarpum (Opiz) Wallr. (syn. A. campestre subsp. leiocarpum) - hairless fruit

The closely related Acer miyabei replaces it in eastern Asia.[3]
Distribution

The native range of field maple includes much of Europe, including Denmark, Poland and Belarus, England north to southern Scotland (where it is the only native maple), southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] In many areas, the original native range is obscured by widespread planting and introductions.[10] In North America it is known as hedge maple[11][12] and in Australia, it is sometimes called common maple.[13] In Nottinghamshire, England it was known locally as dog oak.[14]
Ecology

Field maple is an intermediate species in the ecological succession of disturbed areas; it typically is not among the first trees to colonise a freshly disturbed area, but instead seeds in under the existing vegetation. It is very shade-tolerant during the initial stages of its life, but it has higher light requirements during its seed-bearing years. It exhibits rapid growth initially, but is eventually overtaken and replaced by other trees as the forest matures. It is most commonly found on neutral to alkaline soils, but more rarely on acidic soil.[9]

Diseases include a leaf spot fungus Didymosporina aceris, a mildew Uncinula bicornis, a canker Nectria galligena, and verticillium wilt Verticillium alboatrum. The leaves are also sometimes damaged by gall mites in the genus Aceria, and the aphid Periphyllus villosus.[15]
Cultivation

The field maple is widely grown as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens. The wood is white, hard and strong, and used for furniture, flooring, wood turning and musical instruments,[16] though the small size of the tree and its relatively slow growth make it an unimportant wood.[3] It has an OPALS rating of 7.[17]

It is locally naturalised in parts of the United States[11] and more rarely in New Zealand.[18] The hybrid maple Acer × zoeschense has A. campestre as one of its parents.[4]

The tree has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[19][20]
Cultivars

Over 30 cultivars of Acer campestre are known, selected for their foliage or habit, or occasionally both; several have been lost to cultivation.[21]

'Carnival'
'Commodore'
'Compactum'
'Eastleigh Weeping'
'Elegant'
'Elsrijk'
'Evenly Red'
'Fastigiatum'
'Green Weeping'
'Leprechaun'
'Lienco'
'Marjolein'
'Nanum'
'Pendulum'
'Postelense'
'Pulverulentum'
'Punctatissimum'
'Puncticulatum'
'Queen Elisabeth'
'Red Shine'
'Royal Ruby'
'Ruby Glow'
'Schwerinii'
'Senator'
'Silver Celebration'
'Silver Dawn'
'Streetwise'
'Tauricum'
'Tomentosum'
'William Caldwell'
'Zorgvlied'

Bonsai

Acer campestre (and the similar A. monspessulanum) are popular among bonsai enthusiasts. The dwarf cultivar 'Microphyllum' is especially useful in this regard. A. campestre bonsai have an appearance distinct from those selected from some other maples such as A. palmatum with more frilly, translucent, leaves. The shrubby habit and smallish leaves of A. campestre respond well to techniques encouraging ramification and leaf reduction.[22][23]

References

"Acer campestre L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Acer campestre Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine
"Acer campestre". Flora Europaea. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
Flora of NW Europe: Acer campestre[permanent dead link]
Den virtuella floran: Acer campestre distribution map
Nagy, L.; Ducci, F. (2004). "Acer campestre - Field maple" (PDF). EUFORGEN Technical Guidelines for Genetic Conservation and Use: 6 p.
"Online atlas of the British and Irish flora, Acer campestre (Field maple)". Biological Records Centre and Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
"Acer campestre". USDA Plants Profile. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
"Acer campestre". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
Department of Agriculture, Western Australia: Pests and Diseases Image Library Archived 2008-08-19 at the Wayback Machine
Wright, Joseph. The English dialect dictionary. Vol. 6. London: Oxford University Press. p. 109.
"Field maple images and diseases". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
"Field maple_Woodland Trust". Archived from the original on 2010-09-13. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
Ogren, Thomas Leo (2000). Allergy-Free Gardening. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press. p. 30. ISBN 1580081665.
Trans. and Proc. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 36: 203-225 Plants naturalised in the County of Ashburton
"Acer campestre". www.rhs.org. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). www.rhs.org. Royal Horticultural Society. November 2018. p. 1. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
van Gelderen, C.J.; van Gelderen, D.M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia.
"A. campestre". Bonsai Club International. Archived from the original on November 11, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006.

D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Acer campestre". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2011.

Further reading
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Acer campestre.

Chybicki, Igor J.; Waldon-Rudzionek, Barbara; Meyza, Katarzyna (December 2014). "Population at the edge: increased divergence but not inbreeding towards northern range limit in Acer campestre". Tree Genetics & Genomes. 10 (6): 1739–1753. doi:10.1007/s11295-014-0793-2.

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