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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Anthemideae
Subtribus: Matricariinae
Genus: Achillea
Sectiones: A. sect. Achillea – A. sect. Anthemoideae – A. sect. Babounya – A. sect. Otanthus – A. sect. Ptarmica

Species: A. abrotanoides – A. absinthoides – A. acuminata – A. adeniae – A. aegyptiaca – A. ageratifolia – A. ageratum – A. aleppica – A. alexandri-regis – A. alpina – A. ambrosiaca – A. apiculata – A. arabica – A. armenorum – A. asiatica – A. aspleniifolia – A. atrata – A. aucheri – A. baldaccii – A. baltae – A. barbeyana – A. barrelieri – A. biserrata – A. boissieri – A. brachyphylla – A. bucharica – A. callichroa – A. cappadocica – A. carpatica – A. chamaemelifolia – A. chrysocoma – A. clavennae – A. clusiana – A. clypeolata – A. coarctata – A. collina – A. conferta – A. cretica – A. crithmifolia – A. cucullata – A. cuneatiloba – A. cunoraea – A. distans – A. erba-rotta – A. eriophora – A. euxina – A. falcata – A. filipendulina – A. fragrantissima – A. formosa – A. fraasii – A. getica – A. glaberrima – A. goniocephala – A. grandifolia – A. griseo-virens – A. gypsicola – A. hamzaoglui – A. holosericea – A. impatiens – A. inundata – A. jenisseensis – A. kamelinii – A. karatavica – A. kellalensis – A. ketenoglui – A. kirschneri – A. kotschyi – A. kuprijanovii – A. latiloba – A. ledebourii – A. leptophylla – A. ligustica – A. lingulata – A. lycaonica – A. macrophylla – A. magnifica – A. maritima – A. maura – A. membranacea – A. micrantha – A. micranthoides – A. millefolium – A. milliana – A. monocephala – A. multifida – A. nana – A. nobilis – A. occulta – A. ochroleuca – A. odorata – A. oligocephala – A. oxyloba – A. oxyodonta – A. pachycephala – A. pannonica – A. phrygia – A. pindicola – A. polyphylla – A. pseudoaleppica – A. pseudopectinata – A. ptarmica – A. ptarmicifolia – A. ptarmicoides – A. pyrenaica – A. rupestris – A. sahandica – A. salicifolia – A. santolinoides – A. schauloi – A. schischkinii – A. schmakovii – A. sedelmeyeriana – A. sergievskiana – A. setacea – A. sieheana – A. sintenisii – A. sipikorensis – A. sivasica – A. spinulifolia – A. stepposa – A. stojanoffii – A. styriaca – A. talagonica – A. taygetea – A. tenuifolia – A. teretifolia – A. thracica – A. tomentosa – A. trevidiciana – A. tuzsonii – A. umbellata – A. vandasii – A. vermicularis – A. virescens – A. wilhelmsii – A. wilsoniana

Nothospecies: A. × abscondita – A. × albinea – A. × bichigeani – A. × borzae – A. × bronchalensis – A. × buiana – A. × claudio-politana – A. × conrathii – A. × correvoniana – A. × coziana – A. × dobrogensis – A. × dragomanii – A. × dumasiana – A. × feliciana – A. × graja – A. × hausmanniana – A. × huber-morathii – A. × illiczevskyi – A. × incognita – A. × intermedia – A. × jaborneggii – A. × jauchiana – A. × javorkae – A. × joannis – A. × kellereri – A. × kerneri – A. × kummerleana – A. × laggeri – A. × lewisii – A. × mihaliki – A. × nyaradyana – A. × obscura – A. × prodanii – A. × pseudodorata – A. × pseudogenepi – A. × reichardtiana – A. × romanica – A. × rompelii – A. × roseoalba – A. × rozaliae – A. × ruscinonensis – A. × schneideri – A. × schroeteri – A. × serbani – A. × siegfriedii – A. × submicrantha – A. × subtaurica – A. × thessalica – A. × tomasiana – A. × travignolensis – A. × tymphaea – A. × tzvelevii – A. × valesiaca – A. × wagneri
Name

Achillea L., Sp. Pl. 2: 896 (1753); Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 382 (1754).

Lectotype species: Achillea millefolium L. (designated by Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 182 (1929))
Lectotype species: Achillea santolina L. (designated by Britton & Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S., ed. 2., 3: 514 (1913), invalid)

Synonyms

Homotypic
Achillios St-Lager, Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon, nouv. sér., 7: 118 (1884).
Millefolium Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).

Heterotypic
Arthrolepis Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 11: 14 (1849).
Type species: A. membranacea (Labill.) Boiss.
Conforata Caesalp. ex Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon sér. 2, 17: 91 (1869).
Type species: C. ageratum Fourr.
Diotis Desf., Fl. Atl. 2: 261 (1798), nom. illeg. non Schreb. (1791).
Type species: D. maritima (L.) Desf.
Leucocyclus Boiss., Diagn. Pl. Orient., ser. 1, 11: 13 (1849).
Type species: L. formosus Boiss.
Otanthus Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 2: 364 (1834).
Type species: O. maritimus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link
Ptarmica Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).
Type species: non design.

References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 896. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 382. Reference page.

Additional references

Afanassiev, K.S. & Botschantzev, V.P. 1961. Achillea. Pp. 70–123 in Schischkin, B.K. & Bobrov, E.G. (eds.), Flora URSS (Flora Unionis Rerumpublicarum Sovieticarum Socialisticarum) XXVI. [Compositae, Tribes Anthemideae, Senecioneae and Calenduleae] [in Russian]. 938 pp. Academia Scientiarum URSS, Mosqua, Leningrad. DJVU English translation: 862 pp. BHL Reference page.
Huber-Morath, A. 1975. Achillea. Pp. 224–252 in Davis, P.H. (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 5 (Compositae). Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 890 pp., ISBN 0-85224-280-8. Reference page.
Richardson, I.B.K. 1976. Achillea. Pp. 159–165 in Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. (eds.), Flora Europaea. Volume 4: Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), xxix + 505 pp., ISBN 0-521-08717-1. Reference page.
Huber-Morath, A. 1986. Achillea. Pp. 49–71 in Podlech, D., Huber-Morath, A., Iranshahr, M. & Rechinger, K.H., Compositae – Anthemideae. In: Rechinger, K.H. (ed.) Flora Iranica. Vol. 158. 234 pp., 224 tab., Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt Graz. Reference page.
Arabacı, T. 2006. Türkiye'de Yetişen Achillea L. (Asteraceae) Cinsinin Revizyonu. Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Biyoloji anabilim Dalı. Doktora tezi, Malatya: İnönü Üniversitesi. Reference page.
Shi, Z., Humphries, C.J. & Gilbert, M.G. 2011. Achillea. Pp. 759 in Wu, Zh.Y. , Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.), Flora of China. Volume 20–21: Asteraceae. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, ISBN 978-1-935641-07-0. efloras Reference page.

Links

Tropicos.org 2021. Achillea. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 11 Apr 2021.
Euro+Med 2006 onwards: Achillea in Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Apr 11.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Achillea in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Apr 11. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Achillea. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Apr 11. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Achillea. Published online. Accessed: 11 April 2021.

Vernacular names
العربية: قيصوم, أخيليا, اخيليا
azərbaycanca: Boymadərən, Ptarmica, Millifolia
беларуская: Крываўнік
català: Aquil·lea
کوردی: وەرکەمەر
čeština: řebříček
dansk: Røllike
Deutsch: Schafgarben
dolnoserbski: Rotwica
English: Yarrow
Esperanto: Akileo
eesti: Raudrohi
فارسی: بومادران (سرده)
suomi: Kärsämöt
français: Achillée, Achillee
Gàidhlig: Cathair-thalmhainn
עברית: אכילאה
hrvatski: Stolisnik
hornjoserbsce: Rutwica
magyar: Cickafark
հայերեն: հազարատերևուկ
italiano: Achillea
日本語: ノコギリソウ属, アレキア, アレキア属
ქართული: ფარსმანდუკი
қазақша: Мыңжапырақ
кыргызча: Каз таңдай
lietuvių: Kraujažolė
македонски: Ајдучка трева
Nederlands: Duizendblad
norsk nynorsk: Ryllikslekta
ирон: Цæфы хос
polski: Krwawnik
русский: Тысячелистник
slovenčina: rebríček
slovenščina: Rman
svenska: Röllikesläktet, Röllikor, Achilléa
Türkçe: Civanperçemi
удмурт: Колӝотурын, Колӟотурын
українська: Деревій
Tiếng Việt: Chi Cỏ thi, Cỏ thi
中文(简体): 蓍属
中文(繁體): 蓍屬
中文(臺灣): 蓍屬
中文: 蓍屬, 蓍属

Achillea /ækɪˈliːə/[4] is a group of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, known colloquially as yarrows. They were described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.[5][6] The genus was named after the Greek mythological character Achilles. According to legend, Achilles' soldiers used yarrow to treat their wounds,[7] hence some of its common names such as allheal and bloodwort.

The genus is native primarily to Europe, temperate areas of Asia, and North America.[8][9] The common name "yarrow" is usually applied to Achillea millefolium,[10] but may also be used for other species within the genus.

Description

These plants typically have frilly, hairy, aromatic leaves. The plants show large, flat clusters of small flowers at the top of the stem. The flowers can be white, yellow, orange, pink or red and are generally visited by many insects, and are thus characterised by a generalised pollination system.[11]
Ecology

Achillea species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Achillea.
Cultivation

Achillea species and cultivars are popular garden plants. The following are recipients of the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

Achillea ageratifolia[12]
Achillea 'Coronation Gold'[13]
Achillea 'Credo' [14]
Achillea filipendulina 'Cloth of Gold' [15]
Achillea filipendulina 'Gold Plate' [16]
Achillea 'Heidi' [17]
Achillea 'Hella Glashoff' [18]
Achillea 'Lachsschönheit' (Galaxy Series) [19]
Achillea × lewisii 'King Edward'[20]
Achillea 'Lucky Break' [21]
Achillea 'Martina'[22]
Achillea millefolium 'Lansdorferglut' [23]
Achillea 'Mondpagode'[24]
Achillea 'Moonshine' [25]
Achillea 'Summerwine'[26]

List of species

Nearly 1,000 names have been published within the genus Achillea, at or below the level of species. Sources differ widely as to which of these should be recognized as species, which ones merit subspecies or variety status, and which ones are merely synonyms of better-established names. For convenience, The Plant List maintained by the Kew Botanic Gardens is followed.[27]

Achillea abrotanoides
Achillea absinthoides
Achillea acuminata
Achillea aegyptiaca – Egyptian yarrow
Achillea ageratifolia – Balkan yarrow, Greek yarrow
Achillea ageratum – sweet yarrow, sweet Nancy, English mace
Achillea × albinea
Achillea aleppica
Achillea alexandri-regis
Achillea alpina – Chinese yarrow, Siberian yarrow
Achillea ambrosiaca
Achillea apiculata
Achillea arabica
Achillea armenorum
Achillea asiatica
Achillea asplenifolia
Achillea atrata – black yarrow
Achillea aucheri
Achillea auriculata
Achillea baikalensis
Achillea barbeyana
Achillea barrelieri
Achillea biserrata
Achillea boissieri
Achillea brachyphylla
Achillea bucharica
Achillea callichroa
Achillea cappadocica
Achillea carpatica
Achillea chamaecyparissus
Achillea chamaemelifolia
Achillea cheilanthifolia
Achillea chrysocoma
Achillea clavennae – silvery yarrow
Achillea clusiana
Achillea clypeolata
Achillea coarctata
Achillea collina
Achillea condensata
Achillea conferta
Achillea cretica
Achillea crithmifolia
Achillea cucullata
Achillea cuneatiloba
Achillea decolorans
Achillea decumbens
Achillea distans – Alps yarrow
Achillea erba-rotta – musk milfoil
Achillea eriophora
Achillea euxina
Achillea falcata
Achillea filipendulina – fernleaf yarrow
Achillea formosa
Achillea fraasii – filigree yarrow
Achillea fragantissima
Achillea glaberrima
Achillea goniocephala
Achillea × graja
Achillea grandifolia
Achillea gypsicola
Achillea haussknechtii
Achillea heterophylla
Achillea holosericea
Achillea horanszkyi
Achillea huber-morathii
Achillea × illiczevski
Achillea impatiens
Achillea incognita
Achillea inundata
Achillea japonica
Achillea karatavica
Achillea kellalensis
Achillea ketenoglui
Achillea kotschyi
Achillea laggeri
Achillea latiloba
Achillea ledebourii
Achillea leptophylla
Achillea leptophylloides
Achillea lereschei
Achillea ligustica – Ligurian yarrow
Achillea lingulata
Achillea lycaonica
Achillea macrocephala
Achillea macrophylla – broad-leaved yarrow
Achillea magna
Achillea magnifica
Achillea maritima
Achillea maura
Achillea membranacea
Achillea micrantha
Achillea micranthoides
Achillea millefolium – milfoil, yarrow, allheal, thousand-leaf, bloodwort, carpenter's grass, cammock, green arrow, sneezeweed, nosebleed, green adder's mouth, soldier's woundwort, dog daisy, old-man's-pepper
Achillea milliana
Achillea mollis
Achillea monocephala
Achillea multifida
Achillea nana – dwarf alpine yarrow
Achillea nigrescens
Achillea nobilis – noble yarrow, creamy yarrow
Achillea obscura
Achillea occulta
Achillea ochroleuca
Achillea odorata
Achillea oligocephala
Achillea oxyloba
Achillea oxyodonta
Achillea pachycephala
Achillea phrygia
Achillea pindicola
Achillea pratensis
Achillea pseudoaleppica
Achillea pseudopectinata
Achillea ptarmica – sneezewort, sneezeweed, sneezewort yarrow
Achillea ptarmicifolia
Achillea ptarmicoides
Achillea pyrenaica
Achillea rhodoptarmica
Achillea roseo-alba
Achillea rupestris
Achillea salicifolia
Achillea santolinoides
Achillea schischkinii
Achillea schmakovii
Achillea schneideri
Achillea schugnanica
Achillea sedelmeyeriana
Achillea seidlii
Achillea sergievskiana
Achillea setacea
Achillea sieheana
Achillea sinensis
Achillea sintenisii
Achillea sipikorensis
Achillea spinulifolia
Achillea squarrosa
Achillea stepposa
Achillea styriaca
Achillea × submicrantha
Achillea × subtaurica
Achillea talagonica
Achillea taygetea
Achillea tenuifolia
Achillea teretifolia
Achillea thracica
Achillea tomentosa – woolly yarrow
Achillea tuzsonii
Achillea umbellata
Achillea valesiaca
Achillea vermicularis
Achillea virescens
Achillea wilsoniana – Wilson's yarrow

Gallery

Achillea asplenifolia

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Silvery Yarrow (Achillea clavenae)

Sweet Yarrow (Achillea ageratum)

Fernleaf Yarrow (Achillea filipendula)

Macro image of Yarrow in Sweden

References

lectotype designated by Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 182 (1929)
"Achillea". Index Nominum Genericorum. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. 2006-02-20. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
"Ptarmica Mill. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 896–897. in Latin
Tropicos, Achillea L.
Jalali, Farnood Shokouhi Sabet; Tajik, Hossein; Hadian, Mojtaba (2010). "Efficacy of topical application of alcoholic extract of yarrow in the healing process of experimental burn wounds in rabbit". Comparative Clinical Pathology. 21 (2): 177–181. doi:10.1007/s00580-010-1081-7. S2CID 24486255.
Flora of North America Achillea Linnaeus
Flora of China Vol. 20-21 Page 759 蓍属 shi shu Achillea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 896. 1753.
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
"Achillea ageratifolia". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Coronation Gold'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Credo'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea filipendulina 'Cloth of Gold'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea filipendula 'Gold Plate'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Heidi'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Hella Glashoff'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Lachsschönheit' (Galaxy Series)". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea × lewisii 'King Edward'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Lucky Break'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Martina'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea millefolium 'Lansdorferglut'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Mondpagode'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Moonshine'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
"Achillea 'Summerwine'". RHS. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
The Plant List search for Achillea

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