Agave americana

Agave americana, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Liliopsida
Subclassis: Liliidae
Ordo: Asparagales
Familia: Agavaceae
Genus: Agave
Specie: Agave americana
Subspecies: A. a. subsp. americana - A. a. subsp. americana americana - A. a. subsp. americana expansa - A. a. subsp. protamericana - A. a. subsp. moustroseforum
Variety: A. a. var. americana - A. a. var. expansa - A. a. var. latifolia - A. a. var. marginata - A. a. var. medio-picta - A. a. var. medio-picta alba - A. a. var. oaxacensis - A. a. var. picta A. a. var. striata - A. a. var. theometel -
Form: A. a. f. picta - A. a. f. virginica

Name

Agave americana, L.

References

* USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database, 6 March 2006 (http://plants.usda.gov). Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
* GBIF.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Català: Atzavara
Ελληνικά: Αγάβη η αμερικάνικη
English: Century plant
Español: Agave amarillo, pita
Nederlands: Honderdjarige aloë
Runa Simi: Paqpa

Agave americana, Photo: nps.gov

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Agave americana, commonly known as the Century Plant is an agave originally from Mexico but cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant. It has since naturalised in many regions and grows wild in Europe, South Africa, India, and Australia.[2]


Description

It has a spreading rosette (about 4 m/13 ft wide) of gray-green leaves up to 2 m (6.6 ft) long, each with a spiny margin and a heavy spike at the tip that can pierce to the bone. Its common name derives from its habit of only occasionally flowering, but when it does, the spike with a cyme of big yellow flowers may reach up to 8 m (26 ft) in height. The plant dies after flowering, but produces suckers or adventitious shoots from the base, which continue its growth. The average lifespan is around 10 years.

Cultivated varieties include the "marginata" with yellow stripes along the margins of each leaf, "medio-picta" with a central white band, "striata" with multiple yellow to white stripes along the leaves, and "variegata" with white edges on the leaves.[3]

Taxonomy and naming

Agave americana was one of the many species first described by the father of taxonomy Carl Linnaeus, and appeared in the 1753 edition of Species Plantarum.

It is known by a variety of common names, including Century plant and maguey. It is also known as the American Aloe, although it is in a different family from the true aloes.
Subspecies

* Agave americana var. americana
* Agave americana var. expansa
* Agave americana var. latifolia
* Agave americana var. oaxacensis
* Agave americana ssp. protamericana


Uses

If the flower stem is cut without flowering, a sweet liquid called agua miel ("honey water") gathers in the heart of the plant. This may be fermented to produce the drink called pulque. The leaves also yield fibers, known as pita, which are suitable for making rope, matting, coarse cloth and are used for embroidery of leather in a technique known as piteado. Both pulque and maguey fibre were important to the economy of pre-Columbian Mexico. Production continues today to a much lesser extent. Agave nectar (also called agave syrup) has recently been marketed as a healthful natural sugar substitute.

The sap is quite acidic and can be quite painful if it comes in contact with the skin. It can form small blisters.

Tequila is made from a different species, the Blue Agave (A. tequilana).

Heraldry

The plant figures in the coat of arms of Don Diego de Mendoza, a Native American governor of the village of Ajacuba, Hidalgo.[1]

References

1. ^ "Agave americana L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2005-05-23. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?1690. Retrieved 2010-01-12.
2. ^ Irish, Gary (2000). Agaves, Yuccas, and Related Plants: A Gardener's Guide. Timber Press. pp. 94–97. ISBN 9780881924428. http://books.google.com/books?id=YbVYuq73I0wC.
3. ^ Vermeulen, Nico. 1998. The Complete Encyclopedia of Container Plants, pp. 36-37. Netherlands: Rebo International. ISBN 90-366-1584-4

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