Aizoaceae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Caryophyllales
Familia: Aizoaceae
Genera: Acrodon - Acrosanthes - Aethephyllum - Aizoanthemum - Aizoön - Aloinopsis - Amphibolia - Antigibbaeum - Antimema - Apatesia - Aptenia - Arenifera - Argyroderma - Aspazoma - Astridia - Bergeranthus - Berrisfordia - Bijlia - Braunsia - Brownanthus - Carpanthea - Carpobrotus - Carruanthus - Caryotophora - Cephalophyllum - Cerochlamys - Chasmatophyllum - Cheiridopsis - Circandra - Cleretum - Conicosia - Conophytum - Corpuscularia - Cylindrophyllum - Cypselea - Dactylopsis - Delosperma - Dicrocaulon - Didymaotus - Dinteranthus - Diplosoma - Disphyma - Dorotheanthus - Dracophilus - Drosanthemopsis - Drosanthemum - Eberlanzia - Ebracteola - Enarganthe - Erepsia - Esterhuysenia - Faucaria - Fenestraria - Frithia - Galenia - Gibbaeum - Glottiphyllum - Gunniopsis - Hallianthus - Hereroa - Herreanthus - Hymenogyne - Imitaria - Jacobsenia - Jensenobotrya - Jordaaniella - Juttadinteria - Khadia - Lampranthus - Lapidaria - Leipoldtia - Lithops - Machairophyllum - Malephora - Mesembryanthemum - Mestoklema - Meyerophytum - Mitrophyllum - Monilaria - Mossia - Muiria - Namaquanthus - Namibia - Nananthus - Nelia - Neohenricia - Octopoma - Odontophorus - Oophytum - Ophthalmophyllum - Orthopterum - Oscularia - Ottosonderia - Phyllobolus - Pleiospilos - Plinthus - Polymita - Psammophora - Pseudobrownanthus - Psilocaulon - Rabiea - Rhinephyllum - Rhombophyllum - Ruschia - Ruschianthemum - Ruschianthus - Saphesia - Schlechteranthus - Schwantesia - Scopelogena - Sesuvium - Skiatophytum - Smicrostigma - Stayneria - Stoeberia - Stomatium - Synaptophyllum - Tanquana - Tetragonia - Titanopsis - Trianthema - Tribulocarpus - Trichodiadema - Vanheerdea - Vanzijlia - Wooleya - Zaleya - Zeuktophyllum

Name

Aizoaceae Martynov

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Svenska: Isörtsväxter


The Family Aizoaceae or Ficoidaceae (fig-marigold family or ice plant family) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing 135 genera and about 1900 species. They are commonly known as stone plants or carpet weeds. Species that resemble stones or pebbles are sometimes called mesembs. Several species are known as ice plant.


Description

The family is widely recognised by taxonomists, although once it went by the botanical name "Ficoideae", now disallowed. The APG II system of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system of 1998) also recognises the family, and assigns it to the order Caryophyllales in the clade core eudicots. The APG II system also classes the former families Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl (1836) , Sesuviaceae Horan. (1834) and Tetragoniaceae Link (1831) under the family Aizoaceae.

Most species (96 %, 1782 species in 132 genera) in this family are endemic to arid or semi-arid parts of southern Africa [1], but a few are from Australia and the Central Pacific. Most of these species are succulents and belong to the subfamilies Mesembryanthemoideae and Ruschioideae and are loosely termed mesems or mesembs.

Most fig-marigolds are herbaceous, rarely somewhat woody, with stems growing either erect or prostrate. Leaves are simple, opposite or alternate, and more or less succulent with entire (or rarely toothed) margins. Flowers are perfect in most species (but unisexual in some), actinomorphic, and appear singularly or in few-flowered cymes developing from the leaf axils. Sepals are typically 5 (3-8) and more or less connate (fused) below. True petals are absent. However, some species have numerous linear petals derived from staminoides. The fruit is a capsule with one to numerous seeds per cell.

A few species (especially Carpobrotus edulis, commonly called Ice Plant) have been widely introduced and become invasive.

Uses

Several Aizoaceae are edible, including:

* Carpobrotus edulis and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum have edible leaves, and are both commonly called Ice plant
* A species known as New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides) is grown as a garden plant in somewhat dry climates and used as an alternative to spinach in upscale salads.
* Used in California to prevent erosion along beach cliffs

Carpobrotus edulis was introduced to California to stabilize soil along railroad tracks.

Genera


Subfamily Aizooideae

* Acrosanthes Eckl. & Zeyh.
* Aizoanthemum Dinter ex Friedrich
* Aizoon L.
* Galenia L.
* Gunniopsis Pax
* Plinthus Fenzl
* Tetragonia L.[2]

[edit] Subfamily Mesembryanthemoideae

* Aptenia N.E.Br
* Aridaria N.E.Br
* Aspazoma N.E.Br
* Brownanthus Schwantes
* Dactylopsis N.E.Br
* Mesembryanthemum L.
* Phyllobolus N.E.Br
* Prenia N.E.Br
* Pseudobrownanthus Ihlenf. & Bittrich
* Psilocaulon N.E.Br
* Sceletium N.E.Br
* Synaptophyllum N.E.Br[3]

[edit] Subfamily Ruschioideae

Tribe Apatesieae

* Apatesia N.E.Br
* Carpanthea N.E.Br
* Caryotophora Leistner
* Conicosia N.E.Br
* Hymenogyne Haw.
* Saphesia N.E.Br
* Skiatophytum L.Bolus[4]

Tribe Dorotheantheae

* Aethephyllum N.E.Br
* Cleretum N.E.Br
* Dorotheanthus Schwantes[5]

Tribe Ruschiae

* Acrodon N.E.Br
* Aloinopsis Schwantes
* Amphibolia L.Bolus ex A.G.J.Herre
* Antegibbaeum Schwantes ex C.Weber
* Antimima N.E.Br
* Arenifera A.G.J.Herre
* Argyroderma N.E.Br
* Astridia Dinter
* Bergeranthus Schwantes
* Bijlia N.E.Br
* Braunsia Schwantes
* Brianhuntleya Chess. et al.
* Carpobrotus N.E.Br
* Carruanthus (Schwantes) Schwantes
* Cephalophyllum N.E.Br
* Cerochlamys N.E.Br
* Chasmatophyllum Dinter & Schwantes
* Cheiridopsis N.E.Br
* Circandra N.E.Br
* Conophytum N.E.Br
* Corpuscularia Schwantes
* Cylindrophyllum Schwantes
* Delosperma N.E.Br
* Dicrocaulon N.E.Br
* Didymaotus N.E.Br
* Dinteranthus Schwantes
* Diplosoma Schwantes
* Disphyma N.E.Br
* Dracophilus (Schwantes) Dinter & Schwantes
* Drosanthemum Schwantes
* Eberlanzia Schwantes
* Ebracteola Dinter & Schwantes
* Enarganthe N.E.Br
* Erepsia N.E.Br
* Esterhuysenia L.Bolus
* Faucaria Schwantes
* Fenestraria N.E.Br
* Frithia N.E.Br
* Gibbaeum Haw. ex N.E.Br
* Glottiphyllum Haw. ex N.E.Br
* Hallianthus H.E.K.Hartmann
* Hereroa (Schwantes) Dinter & Schwantes
* Ihlenfeldtia H.E.K.Hartmann
* Imitaria N.E.Br
* Jacobsenia L.Bolus & Schwantes
* Jensenobotrya A.G.J.Herre
* Jordaaniella H.E.K.Hartmann
* Juttadinteria Schwantes
* Khadia N.E.Br
* Lampranthus N.E.Br
* Lapidaria (Dinter & Schwantes) N.E.Br.
* Leipoldtia L.Bolus
* Lithops N.E.Br
* Machairophyllum Schwantes
* Malephora N.E.Br
* Mestoklema N.E.Br. ex Glen
* Meyerophytum Schwantes
* Mitrophyllum Schwantes
* Monilaria (Schwantes) Schwantes
* Mossia N.E.Br
* Muiria N.E.Br
* Namaquanthus L.Bolus
* Namibia (Schwantes) Schwantes
* Nananthus N.E.Br
* Nelia Schwantes
* Neohenricia L.Bolus
* Octopoma N.E.Br
* Odontophorus N.E.Br
* Oophytum N.E.Br
* Ophthalmophyllum Dinter & Schwantes
* Orthopterum L.Bolus
* Oscularia Schwantes
* Ottosonderia L.Bolus
* Pleiospilos N.E.Br
* Polymita N.E.Br
* Psammophora Dinter & Schwantes
* Rabiea N.E.Br
* Rhinephyllum N.E.Br
* Rhombophyllum (Schwantes) Schwantes
* Ruschia Schwantes
* Ruschianthemum Friedrich
* Ruschianthus L.Bolus
* Schlechteranthus Schwantes
* Schwantesia Dinter
* Scopelogena L.Bolus
* Smicrostigma N.E.Br
* Stayneria L.Bolus
* Stoeberia Dinter & Schwantes
* Stomatium Schwantes
* Tanquana H.E.K.Hartmann & Liede
* Titanopsis Schwantes
* Trichodiadema Schwantes
* Vanheerdea L.Bolus ex H.E.K.Hartmann
* Vanzijlia L.Bolus
* Vlokia S.A.Hammer
* Wooleya L.Bolus
* Zeuktophyllum N.E.Br[6]


Subfamily Sesuvioideae

* Cypselea Turpin
* Sesuvium L.
* Trianthema L.
* Tribulocarpus S.Moore
* Zaleya Burm.f.[7]


Incertae sedis

* Corbichonia
* Gisekia
* Herreanthus
* Limeum
* Ophthalmophyllum
* Saphesia


Footnote

1. ^ Chesselet, P., Smith, G.F., Burgoyne, P.M., Klak, C., Hammer, S.A., Hartmann, H.E.K., Kurzweil, H., van Jaarsveld, E.J., van Wyk, B-E. & Leistner, O.A (2000). "Seed Plants of Southern Africa". Strelitzia 10: 360–410.
2. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aizoaceae subfam. Aizooideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2448. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
3. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aizoaceae subfam. Mesembryanthemoideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2451. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
4. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aizoaceae tribe Apatesieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2452. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
5. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aizoaceae tribe Dorotheantheae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2453. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
6. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aizoaceae tribe Ruschiae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2454. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
7. ^ "GRIN Genera of Aizoaceae subfam. Sesuvioideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2449. Retrieved 2011-03-04.


References


* Bittrich V. H. E. K. Hartmann (1988). "The Aizoaceae — a new approach". Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 97: 239–254. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1988.tb01581.x.
* Cornelia Klak, Angeline Khunou, Gail Reeves and Terry Hedderson (2003). "A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Aizoaceae (Caryophyllales) based on four plastid DNA regions". Amer. J. Bot. 90: 1433–1445. doi:10.3732/ajb.90.10.1433. - on line here

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