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Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Liliopsida
Subclassis: Liliidae
Ordo: Asparagales
Familia: Alliaceae

Tribus: Amaryllideae - Calostemmateae - Clinantheae - Cyrtantheae - Eucharideae - Eustephieae - Galantheae - Griffineae - Haemantheae - Hippeastreae - Hymenocallideae - Lycorideae - Narcisseae - Pancratieae - Stenomesseae
Genera: Agapanthus - Allium - Ancrumia - Caloscordum - Erinna - Garaventia - Gethyum - Gilliesia - Ipheion - Latace - Leucocoryne - Miersia - Milula - Muilla - Nectaroscordum - Nothoscordum - Solaria - Speea - Trichlora - Tristagma - Tulbaghia


Alliaceae Batsch ex. Borkh., nom. cons.Synonyms


Agapanthaceae F. Voigt Amaryllidaceae J. St.-Hil.


* Angiosperm Phylogeny Group; 2003; "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering: APG II" Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141:399–436 [1]
* Lohmüller, F.A. 2005. The Botanical System of the Plants[2].
* GBIF .
* Genres et synonymes Amaryllidaceae.
* Meerow, A.W., Fay, M.F., Guy, C.L., Li, Q.B., Zaman, F.Q. & Chase, M.W., (1999). Systematics of Amaryllidaceae based on cladistic analysis of plastid rbcL and trnL-F sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 86:1325-1345.
* Meerow, A.W., Guy, C.L., Li, Q.-B., & Yang, S.-L., (2000). Phylogeny of the American Amaryllidaceae based on nrDNA ITS sequences. Syst. Bot. 25:708-726.
* Lohmüller, F.A. 2005. The Botanical System of the Plants Amaryllidaceae
* GBIF .

Vernacular names
Български: Лукови
Català: Al·liàcia
Česky: Česnekovité
Dansk: Løg-familien
Deutsch: Zwiebelgewächse
Magyar: Hagymafélék
Lietuvių: Česnakiniai
Nederlands: Lookfamilie
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Løkfamilien
Polski: Czosnkowate
Русский: Луковые
Svenska: Lökväxter
اردو: ثومان
Tiếng Việt: Họ Hành
中文: 葱科


Alliaceae is the botanical name of a monocot family of flowering plants in the order Asparagales, more recently reduced to the subfamily Allioideae of the family Amaryllidaceae.[1] The family and subfamily names are derived from the generic name of the type genus, Allium.

The family has been widely but not universally recognized. In the past, the plants involved were often treated as belonging to the family Liliaceae, and still are, in some long-running floristic projects in which obsolete taxonomic systems are still used. More recently, the family has been reduced to a subfamily of the Amaryllidaceae.

Successive revisions of the influential Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification have changed the circumscription of the family. In the 1998 version, Alliaceae were a distinct family; in the 2003 version, combining the Alliaceae with the Agapanthaceae and the Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto was recommended but optional; in the 2009 version, only the broad circumscription of the Amaryllidaceae is allowed, with the Alliaceae reduced to a subfamily, Allioideae.[1]

Note that quite a few of the plants that were once included in family Alliaceae have been assigned to the family Themidaceae in all of the classifications by the APG.

Some of the species of Allium are important food plants for example onions (Allium cepa), chives (A. schoenoprasum), garlic (A. sativum and A. scordoprasum), and leeks (A. porrum).[2] Species of Allium, Gilliesia, Ipheion, Leucocoryne, Nothoscordum, and Tulbaghia are cultivated as ornamentals.[3]

Thirteen of the 16 genera are endemic to temperate South America.[4] Nothoscordum ranges from Argentina to Canada. Milula is native to the Himalayas and Tibet. Allium is indigenous to most of North America, Eurasia, and North Africa.[4]

The largest genera are Allium (260-690 species), Nothoscordum (25), and Tulbaghia (22).[4] Some of the generic limits are not clear. Ipheion, Nothoscordum, and possibly others are not monophyletic.[5]

Alliaceae is divided into three tribes: Allieae, Tulbaghieae, and Gilliesieae.[1] Allieae contains two genera: Allium and Milula. Tulbaghieae contains only Tulbaghia. Gilliesieae contains the remaining 13 genera. Allieae is sister to a clade composed of Tulbaghia and Gilliesieae.[6]


A 1998 treatment of Alliaceae recognized 13 genera.[4] A 2009 reclassification recognized all of these and three more.[1] These 16 genera are listed below. The following genera are included in the Alliaceae sensu stricto:

* Allium
* Ancrumia
* Erinna
* Gethyum
* Gilliesia
* Ipheion
* Leucocoryne
* Miersia
* Milula
* Nothoscordum
* Schickendantziella
* Solaria
* Speea
* Trichlora
* Tristagma
* Tulbaghia

The genera Androstephium, Bessera, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dandya, Dichelostemma Jaimehintonia, Milla, Muilla, Petronymphe, Triteleia, and Triteleiopsis are now treated in the family Themidaceae. Petromymphe is back in Themidaceae after spending a few years in Anthericaceae [1] (now a segregate of Agavaceae).[7]


In 1985, Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo defined their Alliaceae to include all of the genera that are now there, plus Agapanthus and a group of genera that are now placed in Themidaceae, or its equivalent, the subfamily Brodiaeoideae of Asparagaceae.[8] They divided Alliaceae into three subfamilies: Agapanthoideae, Allioideae, and Gilliesioideae. Agapanthoideae consisted of Agapanthus and Tulbaghia. Allioideae contained two tribes: Brodiaeeae and a broadly defined Allieae. Gilliesioideae was composed of about half of the genera now placed in Gilliesieae, the rest being assigned to Allieae.

In 1996, a molecular phylogenetic study of the rbcL gene showed that Agapanthus was misplaced in Alliaceae, and the authors excluded it from the family.[9] They also raised Brodiaeeae to family rank as Themidaceae. They reduced the tribe Allieae to two genera, Allium and Milula, and transferred the rest of Allieae to Gilliesieae. This is the circumscription which the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group accepted in the APG classification of 1998 and which later became known as Alliaceae sensu stricto.

In the APG II system of 2003, Alliaceae could be recognized sensu stricto or sensu lato, as mentioned above. Soon after the publication of APG II, the ICBN conserved the name Amaryllidaceae for the family that had been called Alliaceae sensu lato in APG II.

When the APG III system was published in 2009, the alternative circumscriptions were discontinued and Alliaceae was no longer recognized. Alliaceae sensu stricto became the subfamily Allioideae of Amaryllidaceae sensu lato.[1] Some botanists have not strictly followed the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and have recognized the smaller version of Alliaceae at family rank.[2][10]


1. ^ a b c d e f Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x
2. ^ a b Ole Seberg. 2007. "Alliaceae" pages 340=341. In: Vernon H. Heywood, Richard K. Brummitt, Ole Seberg, and Alastair Culham. Flowering Plant Families of the World. Firefly Books: Ontario, Canada.
3. ^ Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
4. ^ a b c d Knud Rahn. 1998. "Alliaceae" pages 70-78. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume III. Springer-Verlag: Berlin;Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-64060-8
5. ^ Michael F. Fay, Paula J. Rudall, and Mark W. Chase. 2006. "Molecular studies of subfamily Gilliesioideae (Alliaceae)". Aliso 22(Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution):367-371. ISSN 0065-6275.
6. ^ J. Chris Pires, Ivan J. Maureira, Thomas J. Givnish, Kenneth J. Sytsma, Ole Seberg, Gitte Petersen, Jerrold I. Davis, Dennis W. Stevenson, Paula J. Rudall, Michael F. Fay, and Mark W. Chase. 2006. "Phylogeny, genome size, and chromosome evolution of Asparagales". Aliso 22(Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution):287-304. ISSN 0065-6275.
7. ^ David J. Bogler, J. Chris Pires and Javier Francisco-Ortega (2006). "Phylogeny of Agavaceae based on ndhF, rbcL, and ITS sequences: implications of molecular data for classification". Aliso 22 (Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution): 313–328.
8. ^ Rolf M.T. Dahlgren, H. Trevor Clifford, and Peter F. Yeo. 1985. The Families of the Monocotyledons. Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo. ISBN 978-3-540-13655-2. ISBN 978-0-387-13655-4.
9. ^ Michael F. Fay and Mark W. Chase. 1996. "Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and Agapanthoideae". Taxon 45(3):441-451. (see External links below).
10. ^ Armen L. Takhtajan (Takhtadzhian). Flowering Plants second edition (2009). Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-9608-2.

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