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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Orchidoideae
Tribus: Cranichideae
Subtribus: Goodyerinae
Genus: Anoectochilus
Overview of species (46)

A. albolineatus – A. albomarginatus – A. annamensis – A. baotingensis – A. brevilabris – A. burmannicus – A. calcareus – A. dewildeorum – A. dulongensis – A. elatus – A. emeiensis – A. falconis – A. flavescens – A. formosanus – A. geniculatus – A. hainanensis – A. imitans – A. insignis – A. integrilabris – A. kinabaluensis – A. klabatensis – A. koshunensis – A. longicalcaratus – A. longilobus – A. lylei – A. malipoensis – A. monicae – A. nandanensis – A. narasimhanii – A. nicobaricus – A. papillosus – A. papuanus – A. pectinatus – A. pingbianensis – A. regalis – A. reinwardtii – A. rhombilabius – A. roxburghii – A. sandvicensis – A. sanguineus – A. setaceus – A. subregularis – A. sumatranus – A. xingrenensis – A. yatesiae – A. zhejiangensis

Anoectochilus Blume, Bijdr.: 411 (1825)

Type species: Anoectochilus setaceus Blume, Bijdr.: 412 (1825)


Chrysobaphus Wall., Tent. Fl. Napal.: 37 (1826)
Anectochilus Blume, Coll. Orchid.: 44 (1858), orth. var.

Native distribution areas:

China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, Tibet.
Eastern Asia
Nansei-shoto, Taiwan.
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya.
Andaman Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam.
Borneo, Jawa, Malaya, Maluku, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
New Guinea.
North-Central Pacific
Southwestern Pacific
Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Santa Cruz Islands, Vanuatu.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Blume, C.L. 1825. Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië 8: 411–412.
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2003. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 3: Orchidoideae (Part two); page 69 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850711-9

Additional references

Wood, J.J. (2008) Anoectochilus of Mount Kinabalu. Malesian Orchid Journal 1: 5–12.


'eFloras 2009. Anoectochilus in Flora of China vol. 25 Orchidaceae --> pdf Anoectochilus
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Anoectochilus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 17. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Anoectochilus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 17. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Anoectochilus. Published online. Accessed: 17 May 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Anoectochilus in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 17. 2019. Anoectochilus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 17.

Vernacular names

Ελληνικά: Ανοικτόχειλος
English: Marbled jewel orchids
перем коми: Анектохил
коми: Анектохил
олык марий: Анектохил
кырык мары: Анектохил
русский: Анектохил
удмурт: Анектохил
Tiếng Việt: Chi Lan kim tuyến
中文: 开唇兰属

Anoectochilus, commonly known as marbled jewel orchids[3] or filigree orchids,[4] is a genus of about fifty species in the orchid family Orchidaceae. They are terrestrial herbs with a creeping rhizome, an upright flowering stem and dark coloured leaves with contrasting veins. The flowers are relatively large and have a large labellum, markedly different from the sepals and petals.


Orchids in the genus Anoectochilus are terrestrial, perennial, deciduous, sympodial herbs with a creeping, above-ground rhizome with wiry roots that look woolly. The leaves are arranged in a rosette and are relatively broad and thin. They are dark green or brownish purple and have a contrasting network of silvery or reddish veins. The flowers are relatively large, hairy, velvety, resupinate and arranged in a short spike. The dorsal sepal and petals overlap to form a hood over the column with the lateral sepals spreading apart from each other. The labellum is relatively large with two sections - an upper "epichile" and lower "hypochile" separated by a narrow section. The hypochile has a cylinder-shaped spur containing two large glands and is joined to the epichile with a "claw" that has spreading teeth or a long fringe. The fruit is a hairy capsule containing a large number of winged seeds.[3][4][5][6]
Taxonomy and naming

The genus Anoectochilus was first formally described in 1825 by Carl Ludwig Blume and Anoectochilus setaceus was the first species he described, hence it is the type species.[7] The genus name is derived from the Ancient Greek words anoiktos (ἀνοικτός) meaning "opened" and cheilos (χεῖλος) meaning "lip".[8]

Orchids in this genus range from the Himalayas to south China, Southeast Asia, Australia, New Guinea, Melanesia and Hawaii,[9] found in moist areas with deep shade.[3][4]
List of species

The following is a list of species recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at May 2018:[1]

Anoectochilus albolineatus C.S.P.Parish & Rchb.f. (1874) : white lines anoectochilus (Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)
Anoectochilus albomarginatus Loudon (1855)
Anoectochilus annamenis (2007) (Vietnam)[10]
Anoectochilus baotingensis (K.Y.Lang) Ormerod (2003) (China, Hainan)
Anoectochilus brevilabris Lindl. (1840) : short-lipped Anoectochilus
Anoectochilus brevistylus (Hook.f.) Ridl. (1907)
Anoectochilus burmannicus Rolfe (1922)
Anoectochilus calcareus Aver. (1996 publ. 1997).
Anoectochilus dewildeorum Ormerod (2005) (Sumatra)
Anoectochilus dulongensis Ormerod (2013) (Sumatra)
Anoectochilus elatus Lindl. (1857).
Anoectochilus emeiensis K.Y.Lang (1982)
Anoectochilus falconis Ormerod (2005) (Malaysia)
Anoectochilus flavescens Blume (1825).
Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata (1914). (Chinese: 臺灣金線蓮; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan kim-sòaⁿ-liân))
Anoectochilus geniculatus Ridl. (1896) (Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra)
Anoectochilus hainanensis H.Z.Tian, F.W.Xing & L.Li (2008).
Anoectochilus imitans Schltr. (1906).
Anoectochilus insignis Schltr. (1911).
Anoectochilus integrilabris Carr (1935).
Anoectochilus kinabaluensis (Rolfe) J.J.Wood & Ormerod (1994).
Anoectochilus klabatensis (Schltr.) S.Thomas (2002).
Anoectochilus koshunensis Hayata (1914).
Anoectochilus longicalcaratus J.J.Sm. (1922).
Anoectochilus longilobus H.Jiang & H.Z.Tian (2014).
Anoectochilus lylei Rolfe ex Downie (1925).
Anoectochilus malipoensis W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui (2010).
Anoectochilus monicae J.J.Wood (2004).
Anoectochilus nandanensis Y.Feng Huang & X.C.Qu (2015).
Anoectochilus narasimhanii Sumathi & al. (2003).
Anoectochilus nicobaricus N.P.Balakr. & P.Chakra (1978 publ. 1979).
Anoectochilus papillosus Aver. (2007).
Anoectochilus papuanus (Schltr.) W.Kittr. (1984 publ. 1985).
Anoectochilus pectinatus (Hook.f.) Ridl. (1907).
Anoectochilus pingbianensis K.Y.Lang (1996).
Anoectochilus regalis Blume (1858).
Anoectochilus reinwardtii Blume (1858).
Anoectochilus rhombilabius Ormerod (2002).
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (1839).
Anoectochilus sandvicensis Lindl. (1840)
Anoectochilus setaceus Blume (1825) : bristly anoectochilus (type species)
Anoectochilus subregularis (Rchb.f.) Ormerod (1996).
Anoectochilus sumatranus (J.J.Sm.) J.B.Comber (2001).
Anoectochilus xingrenensis Z.H.Tsi & X.H.Jin (2002).
Anoectochilus yatesiae F.M.Bailey (1907) (Queensland)
Anoectochilus zhejiangensis Z.Wei & Y.B.Chang (1989).


"Anoectochilus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Walter Hood Fitch (1817-1892) del. Swan sc. William Jackson Hooker (1785—1865) ed. - "Curtis's botanical magazine" vol. 70 tab. 4123
Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 346. ISBN 1877069124.
"Anoectochilus". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
"Anoectochilus". Flora of China. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
"Genus: Anoectochilus". North American Orchid Conservation Center. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
"Anoectochilus setaceus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Backer, C.A. (1936). Verklarend woordenboek der wetenschappelijke namen van de in Nederland en Nederlandsch-Indië in het wild groeiende en in tuinen en parken gekweekte varens en hoogere planten (Edition Nicoline van der Sijs).
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families

"New plant and animal species found in Vietnam" Archived October 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine CNN. September 27, 2007.

Ormerod Paul (2005). "Notulae Goodyerinae (II)". Taiwania. 50 (1): 1–10.

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