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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Alismatales

Familia: Araceae
Subfamilia: Aroideae
Tribus: Anubiadeae
Genus: Anubias
Species: A. afzelii – A. barteri – A. gigantea – A. gilletii – A. gracilis – A. hastifolia – A. heterophylla – A. pynaertii
Name

Anubias Schott, 1857
Synonyms

Amauriella Rendle

References

Schott, H.W., 1857. Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 398
Crusio W.. A revision of Anubias Schott (Araceae). (Primitiae Africanae XII). Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, 79(14): 1–48. 1979. Archived from the original on 2014-11-07.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Anubias in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Oct. 30. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Anubias. Published online. Accessed: Oct. 30 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Anubias in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Oct. 30.
Tropicos.org 2018. Anubias. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Oct. 30.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Speerblatt
eesti: Anuubias
suomi: Keihäslehdet

Anubias is a genus of aquatic and semi-aquatic flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical central and western Africa. They primarily grow in rivers and streams, but can also be found in marshes. They are characterized by broad, thick, dark leaves that come in many different forms. The genus was revised in 1979[1] and since then its nomenclature has been stable. Species can be determined by using mostly characteristics of the inflorescence. Because of the often shady places where the plants grow, the genus was named after the Egyptian god Anubis, the god of the afterlife.[1] The genus was first described in 1857 by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, with A. afzelii as its type species.[2]

Reproduction and uses

Anubias, most notably the varying forms of A. barteri,[3] are commonly used in aquariums, usually attached to rocks or bogwood. In contrast to most plants, Anubias generally prefer subdued lighting and can also produce flowers underwater. In the aquarium they should be placed in shaded areas, otherwise algae will develop on the leaves.

Anubias are considered by many aquarists some of the easiest plants to maintain, since their light and nutrient requirements are very low and also because herbivorous fish will not eat it (with a few exceptions). This is why Anubias are some of the few plants which can be used in aquariums with African cichlids and goldfishes.

Reproduction in artificial environments can be accomplished by stolon division or from side shoots. The stolon must always be above the substrate in order to survive, otherwise it will rot and the plant dies. Rather than planting anubias directly into the soil, they should be attached to a piece of rock or driftwood, as they are more likely to grow and thrive when the rhizome and roots are left exposed instead of buried. It is also possible to propagate Anubias by seed.[4]

The natural growth rate of all species in this genus is rather slow. Usually, they produce a leaf every 3 weeks, or even slower. And while they were once thought to be among the few plants that do not respond to CO2 addition, hobbyists have seen great results and improved growth with CO2 and high light intensity .

The most commonly available species of this genus is Anubias barteri Schott, which is polymorphic and subdivided into several varieties. The largest members of the genus are Anubias gigantea Chevalier ex Hutchinson and Anubias heterophylla Engler. Their leaf-stems can grow up to 83 cm, with leaves 40 cm long and 14 cm broad with lateral lobes up to 28 cm long and 10 cm broad. The smallest representative is Anubias barteri var. nana (Engler) Crusio, with a height up to 10 cm and with leaves up to 6 cm long and 3 cm broad.

Anubias can be grown emersed (above water). For this reason they may be used in paludariums.
Species and varieties

Anubias afzelii Schott

Narrow-leafed, medium-sized Anubias
Characteristics: plant with stolon
Leaf-stem: up to 20 cm
Leaves: 13–35 cm long, 3–13 cm broad
Height in aquarium: 25 – 30 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 22 - 28 °C
pH: 6.0 - 7.0
Water hardness: 2 dGH - 6 dGH
Position in aquarium: middle to back
Usual growth rate: one leaf every 2 months

Anubias barteri Schott

Common varieties:
Wikispecies has information related to Anubias.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anubias.

Anubias barteri var. angustifolia (Engler) Crusio

Synonym: Anubias lanceolata f. angustifolia Engler
Narrow leaves, similar to afzelii, but much smaller
Leaf-stem: up to 32 cm
Leaves: up to 18 cm long, up to 3.5 cm wide
Height in aquarium: 10 – 15 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 20 - 27 °C
pH: 5.5 - 8.0
Water hardness: < 8 dGH
Position in aquarium: middle
Usual growth rate: one leaf every 2 months

Anubias barteri var. barteri

Compact, heart-shaped anubias
Leaf-stem: up to 23 cm
Leaves: 7–23 cm long, 4–11 cm wide
Height in aquarium: 25 – 45 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 20 - 27 °C
pH: 5.5 - 9.0
Water hardness: < 20 dGH
Position in aquarium: back
Usual growth rate: one leaf every 3 months

Anubias barteri var. caladiifolia Engler

Heart-shaped anubias
Leaf-stem: up to 54 cm
Leaves: 10–23 cm long, 5–14 cm wide
Height in aquarium: 7 – 30 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 20 - 27 °C
pH: 5.5 - 8.0
Water hardness: < 20 dGH
Position in aquarium: middle to back
Usual growth rate: one leaf every 2 months

Anubias barteri var. glabra N. E. Brown

Synonyms: Anubias lanceolata N. E. Brown, Anubias minima Chevalier.
Narrow-leafed, large anubias
Leaf-stem: up to 35 cm long
Leaves: spear-shaped, up to 21 cm long, 9 cm wide
Height in aquarium: 30 – 50 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 22 - 27 °C
pH: 5.5 - 8.0
Water hardness: < 20 dGH
Position in aquarium: back
Usual growth rate: 4 - 8 leaves per year

Anubias barteri var. nana (Engler) Crusio

Synonym: Anubias nana Engler
Dwarf, creeping, with heart-shaped leaves
Leaf-stem: up to 5 cm long
Leaves: up to 6 cm long and 3 cm wide
Height in aquarium: 5 – 10 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 22 - 27 °C
pH: 5.5 - 9.0
Water hardness: 3 - 10 dGH
Position in aquarium: front
Usual growth rate: one leaf every month

Anubias gigantea Chevalier ex Hutchinson

Synonyms: Anubias gigantea var. tripartita Chevalier, Anubias hastifolia var. robusta Engler
Large arrow-shaped leaves
Leaf-stem: up to 83 cm long
Leaves: up to 30 cm long and 14 cm wide, with large lateral lobes up to 28 cm long and 10 cm broad
Seldomly used in aquariums

Anubias gilletii De Wildeman & Durand

Initially heart-shaped, later with long rear fringes
Leaf-stem: up to 40 cm
Leaves: arrow-shaped, 25 cm long, 12 – 13 cm wide, lateral lobes up to 13 cm long
Height in aquarium: 25 – 40 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 22 - 27 °C
pH: 6.0 - 8.0
Water hardness: 4 - 10 dGH
Position in aquarium: back
Usual growth rate: 2 - 6 leaves per year

Anubias gracilis Chevalier ex Hutchinson

Whether this is a separate species or another variety of Anubias barteri is doubtful[4]
Leaf-stem: up to 33 cm
Leaves: triangular heart-shaped, 12 cm long, 4–10 cm wide, lateral lobes up to 7 cm long and 3 cm wide
Height in aquarium: 20 – 30 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 24 - 27 °C
pH: 6.0 - 8.0
Water hardness: 5 - 12 dGH
Position in aquarium: middle to back
Usual growth rate: 2 - 6 leaves per year

Anubias hastifolia Engler

Synonyms: Amauriella hastifolia (Engler) Hepper, Anubias hastifolia var. sublobata Engler, Anubias auriculata Engler, Amauriella auriculata (Engler) Hepper, Anubias haullevilleana De Wildeman, Anubias laurentii De Wildeman, Amauriella obanensis Rendle, Amauriella talbotii Rendle
Leaves: long heart-shaped
Leaf-stem: up to 67 cm long
Leaves: up to 33 cm long and 14 cm wide, lateral lobes up to 26 cm long and 8 cm broad
Height in aquarium: 30 – 50 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 22 - 27 °C
pH: 6.0 - 8.0
Water hardness: < 20 dGH
Position in aquarium: middle to back
Usual growth rate: 2 - 6 leaves per year

Anubias heterophylla

Anubias heterophylla Engler

Synonyms: Anubias congensis N. E. Brown, Anubias congensis var. crassispadix Engler, Anubias affinis De Wildeman, Anubias engleri De Wildeman, Anubias bequaerti De Wildeman, Anubias undulata (trade name)
Very large species, for tall aquariums
Leaf-stem: up to 66 cm long
Leaves: 38 cm long, 13 cm wide, sometimes with very short basal lobes
Height in aquarium: 25 – 60 cm

Optimal conditions:

Temperature: 24 - 27 °C
pH: 5.5 - 8.0
Water hardness: 5 - 12 dGH
Position in aquarium: back
Usual growth rate: 2 - 4 leaves per year

Anubias pynaertii De Wildeman

Leaf-stem: up to 45 cm
Leaves: up to 29 cm long and 14 cm broad

See also

Aquatic plant
List of freshwater aquarium plant species

References

Crusio, W. (1979). "A revision of Anubias Schott (Araceae). (Primitiae Africanae XII)". Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. 79 (14): 1–48. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
Schott, H. (December 1857). "Aroideen Skizzen". Österreichisches Botanisches Wochenblatt (in German and Latin). 7 (50): 398–399. doi:10.1007/BF02071618.
Christel Kasselmann (2002). Aquarium Plants. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company. pp. 104. ISBN 1-57524-091-2.
Crusio WE (1987). "Die Gattung Anubias SCHOTT (Araceae)". Aqua Planta (in German). Sonderheft (1): 1–44.

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