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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Apocynaceae
Subfamilia: Apocynoideae
Tribus: Apocyneae
Subtribus: Apocyinae
Genus: Apocynum
Species: A. androsaemifolium - A. cannabinum - A. pictum - A. sarmatiense - A. venetum - A. × floribundum

Name

Apocynum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 213 (1753).

Type Species: Apocynum androsaemifolium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 213. (1753) Lecotype designated by Hitchcock, Prop. Brit. Bot.: 136 (1929)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Apocynastrum Heist. ex Fabr., Enum.: 139 (1759).
Poacynum Baill., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 757 (1888).
Cynopaema Lunell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 508 (1916).
Trachomitum Woodson, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: 157 (1930).

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 213. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Apocynum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Sep 17. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Apocynum. Published online. Accessed: Sep 17 2018.
Tropicos.org 2018. Apocynum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 17 Sep 2018.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Hundsgift
English: Dogbane

Apocynum, commonly known as dogbane[2] or Indian hemp,[2] is a small genus of the flowering plant family Apocynaceae. Its name comes from Ancient Greek ἀπόκυνον apókunon, from ἀπο- apo- "away" and κύων kúōn "dog",[3] referring to dogbane (Cionura erecta),[4] which was used to poison dogs.[5] The genus is native to North America, temperate Asia, and southeastern Europe.[1][6][7]

Apocynum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the mouse moth and the queen butterfly.

Uses

Apocynum cannabinum was used as a source of fiber by Native Americans. Apocynum venetum (Chinese: 羅布麻) is used as an herbal tea in China.[8] Dogbane contains cymarin, a cardiotonic agent formerly used to treat cardiac arrhythmia in humans.[9]
Species

Almost 300 names have been proposed in the genus for species, subspecies, and forms.[1] As of 2019, only the following five species and hybrids are currently recognized, with several subspecies and varieties accepted for A. androsaemifolium and A. venetum (see their respective species pages).[10]

Apocynum androsaemifolium L. – Canada, United States, northeastern Mexico
Apocynum cannabinum L. – Canada, United States
Apocynum × floribundum Greene (a hybrid of A. androsaemifolium and A. cannabinum) – Canada, United States, northern Mexico
Apocynum pictum Schrenk – China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
Apocynum venetum L. – southeastern Europe and Asia

Flowers of Apocynum cannabinum

Flowers of Apocynum cannabinum
Leaves of Apocynum androsaemifolium

Leaves of Apocynum androsaemifolium
Apocynum venetum

Apocynum venetum

References

"Apocynum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 517. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
http://www.co.jefferson.co.us/coopext/plantdetail.do?sna=Apocynum+androsaemifolium&image=0 Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine Colorado Plant Database
ἀπόκυνον in Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Jones, Sir Henry Stuart, with the assistance of McKenzie, Roderick. Oxford: Clarendon Press. In the Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.
Dempster, Lauramay T. (1993). "Apocynum". In Hickman, James C. (ed.). The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University and Jepson Herbaria.
Li, Bingtao; Leeuwenberg, Antony J. M.; Middleton, David J. "Apocynum". Flora of China. Vol. 16 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
"Apocynum". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2013.
Xiong, Q; Fan, W; Tezuka, Y; Adnyana, IK; Stampoulis, P; Hattori, M; Namba, T; Kadota, S. "Hepatoprotective effect of Apocynum venetum and its active constituents". Planta Med. 66: 127–33. doi:10.1055/s-2000-11135. PMID 10763585.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Cymarine
"Apocynum L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. Retrieved 17 June 2019.

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