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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Carduoideae
Tribus: Cardueae
Subtribus: Carduinae
Genus: Arctium
Sectiones (11): A. sect. Amberbopsis – A. sect. Anura – A. sect. Arctium – A. sect. Chrysis – A. sect. Hypacanthium – A. sect. Hypacanthodes – A. sect. Lappaceum – A. sect. Pectinatae – A. sect. Pseudarctium – A. sect. Schmalhausenia – A. sect. Serratulopsis
Species (52): A. abolinii – A. albertii – A. ambiguum – A. amplissimum – A. anomalum – A. arctioides – A. atlanticum – A. aureum – A. chloranthum – A. cimbricum – A. dolichophyllum – A. dualis – A. echinopifolium – A. egregium – A. elatum – A. evidens – A. fedtschenkoanum – A. grandifolium – A. haesitabundum – A. horrescens – A. karatavicum – A. korolkowii – A. korshinskyi – A. lappa – A. lappaceum – A. leiobardanum – A. leiospermum – A. maassii – A. macilentum – A. medians – A. minus – A. mixtum – A. nemorosum – A. nidulans – A. nothum – A. palladinii – A. pallidivirens – A. pentacanthoides – A. pentacanthum – A. pseudarctium – A. pterolepidum – A. radula – A. refractum – A. sardaimionense – A. schmalhausenii – A. semiconstrictum – A. tomentellum – A. tomentosum – A. triflorum – A. ugamense – A. umbrosum – A. vavilovii
Nothospecies: A. × ambiguum – A. × batavum – A. × bretonii – A. × mixtum – A. × nothum
Source(s) of checklist:

Hassler, M. 2018. Arctium. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Apr. 18. Reference page.

Name

Arctium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 816. (1753)

Type species: Arctium lappa L., Sp. Pl. 2: 816 (1753)
Synonyms

Heterotypic
Lappa Scop., Meth. Pl. 19. (1754)
Bardana Hill, Veg. Syst. 4: 28. (1762)
Schmalhausenia C.Winkl., Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 12: 281. (1892)
Arcion Bubani, Fl. Pyrenaea 2: 123. (1899)
Hypacanthium Juz., Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Ser. 1, Fl. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 3: 324 (1937)

Notes

Arctium Lam. (Fl. Franç. (Lamarck) 2: 70 (1779), nom. inval.) = Berardia Vill. Prosp. Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 27 (1779)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 816. Reference page.
López-Vinyallonga, S., Romaschenko, K., Susanna, A. & Garcia-Jacas, N. 2011. Systematics of the arctioid group: disentangling Arctium and Cousinia (Cardueae, Carduinae). Taxon 60(2): 539–554. DOI: 10.1002/tax.602020 JSTORPDF Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Arctium. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Apr. 18. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Arctium. Published online. Accessed: Apr. 18 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Arctium in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Apr. 18. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2018. Arctium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 18 Apr. 2018.

Vernacular names
العربية: قرطب, القرطب
azərbaycanca: Atpıtrağı
žemaitėška: Varnalieša
беларуская: Лопух
brezhoneg: Seregenn-vras
čeština: Lopuch
dansk: Burre
Deutsch: Kletten
English: Burdock
Esperanto: Lapo
eesti: Takjas
فارسی: باباآدم, بار دان, باباادم
suomi: Takiaiset
Nordfriisk: Boren
français: Bardane
հայերեն: Կոթուկ
Ido: Bardano
italiano: Arctium
日本語: ゴボウ
қазақша: Шоңайна
kurdî: Gula fişek
lietuvių: Varnalėša
македонски: Чичок
Nedersaksies: Klitse
Nederlands: Klit
norsk nynorsk: Borreslekta
norsk: Borreslekten
ирон: Залмысыф
polski: Łopian
русский: Лопух
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Čičak
slovenčina: Lopúch
српски / srpski: Чичак
svenska: Kardborresläktet
Tagalog: Mores
удмурт: Ракматкуар
українська: Лопух
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qariqiz
Tiếng Việt: Chi Ngưu bảng
中文: 牛蒡屬

Arctium is a genus of biennial plants commonly known as burdock, family Asteraceae.[2] Native to Europe and Asia, several species have been widely introduced worldwide.[3] Burdock's clinging properties, in addition to thus providing an excellent mechanism for seed dispersal, led to the invention of the hook and loop fastener.

Description

Plants of the genus Arctium have dark green leaves that can grow up to 70 centimetres (28 inches) long. They are generally large, coarse and ovate, with the lower ones being heart-shaped. They are woolly underneath. The leafstalks are generally hollow. Arctium species generally flower from July through to October. Burdock flowers provide essential pollen and nectar for honeybees around August when clover is on the wane and before the goldenrod starts to bloom.[4]

Burdock's clinging properties provides it an excellent mechanism for seed dispersal.[3]

Arctium lappa (greater burdock)

A 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) tall man holding a leaf

Hooked burrs

Macro photograph of a bur, showing the sharp hook structures

Taxonomy

A large number of species have been placed in genus Arctium at one time or another, but most of them are now classified in the related genus Cousinia. The precise limits between Arctium and Cousinia are hard to define; there is an exact relation between their molecular phylogeny. The burdocks are sometimes confused with the cockleburs (genus Xanthium) and rhubarb (genus Rheum).
Accepted species

The following species are accepted:[5]

Arctium abolinii (Kult. ex Tscherneva) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium alberti (Regel & Schmalh.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium × ambiguum (Celak.) Nyman
Arctium amplissimum Kuntze
Arctium anomalum Kuntze
Arctium arctiodes Kuntze
Arctium atlanticum (Pomel) H.Lindb. – Algeria, Morocco
Arctium aureum Kuntze
Arctium chloranthum (Kult.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium dolichophyllum (Kult.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium × dualis (Juz.) Duist.
Arctium echinopifolium (Bornm.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium egregium (Juz.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium elatum (Boiss. & Buhse) Kuntze
Arctium evidens (Tscherneva) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium fedtschenkoanum (Bornm.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium grandifolium (Kult.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium haesitabundum (Juz.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium horrescens (Juz.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium karatavicum Kuntze
Arctium korolkowii Kuntze
Arctium korshinskyi (C.Winkl.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium lappa L. – greater burdock – much of Eurasia; naturalized in North America, Australia and New Zealand
Arctium lappaceum (Schrenk) Kuntze
Arctium × leiobardanum Juz. & C.Serg. ex Stepanov – Siberia
Arctium leiospermum Juz. & Ye.V.Serg.
Arctium × maassii Rouy
Arctium macilentum (C.Winkl.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium medians (Juz.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. – lesser burdock – Europe and southwestern Asia; naturalized in North and South America, Australia and New Zealand
Arctium × mixtum (Simonk.) Nyman
Arctium nemorosum Lej.
Arctium nidulans (Regel) Sennikov
Arctium × nothum (Ruhmer) J.Weiss – central and eastern Europe
Arctium palladinii (Marcow.) R.E.Fr. & Soderb. – Turkey, Iran, Caucasus
Arctium pallidivirens (Kult.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium pentacanthoides (Juz. ex Tscherneva) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium pentacanthum (Regel & Schmalh.) Kuntze
Arctium pseudarctium (Bornm.) Duist. – Afghanistan, Tajikistan
Arctium pterolepidum (Kult.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium radula Juz. & Ye.V.Serg.
Arctium refractum (Bornm.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium sardaimionense Rassulova & B.A.Sharipova – Tajikistan
Arctium schmalhausenii Kuntze
Arctium × semiconstrictum Duist.
Arctium tomentellum (C.Winkl.) Kuntze
Arctium tomentosum Mill. – woolly burdock – northern and eastern Europe, Turkey, Iran, Caucasus, Siberia, Xinjiang; naturalized in North America
Arctium triflorum Kuntze
Arctium ugamense (Karmysch.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium umbrosum (Bunge) Kuntze
Arctium vavilovii (Kult.) S.López, Romasch., Susanna & N.Garcia
Arctium × zalewskii (Dybowski.) Arènes

Etymology

Circa 16th century, from bur + dock, the latter meaning sorrel of the genus Rumex.[6]
Ecology

The roots of burdock, among other plants, are eaten by the larva of the ghost moth (Hepialus humuli). The plant is used as a food plant by other Lepidoptera including brown-tail, Coleophora paripennella, Coleophora peribenanderi, the Gothic, lime-speck pug and scalloped hazel.

The prickly heads of these plants (burrs) are noted for easily catching on to fur and clothing. In England, some birdwatchers have reported that birds have become entangled in the burrs leading to a slow death, as they are unable to free themselves.[7]
Toxicity

The green, above-ground portions may cause contact dermatitis in individual with allergies as the plant contains lactones.[8]
Uses
Food and drink
A dish containing a Japanese appetizer, kinpira gobō, consisting of sautéed burdock root and carrot, with a side of sautéed dried daikon

The taproot of young burdock plants can be harvested and eaten as a root vegetable. While generally out of favour in modern European cuisine, it is popular in East Asia. Arctium lappa is known as niúbàng (牛蒡) in Chinese, the same name having been borrowed into Japanese as gobō, and is eaten in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. In Korean, burdock root is called u-eong (우엉) and sold as tong u-eong (통우엉), or "whole burdock". Plants are cultivated for their slender roots, which can grow up to about one metre long and two centimetres across. Burdock root is very crisp and has a sweet, mild, or pungent flavour with a little muddy harshness that can be reduced by soaking julienned or shredded roots in water for five to ten minutes. The roots have been used as potato substitutes in Russia.[9]

Immature flower stalks may also be harvested in late spring, before flowers appear; their taste resembles that of artichoke, to which the burdock is related. The stalks are thoroughly peeled, and either eaten raw, or boiled in salt water.[10] Leaves are also eaten in spring in Japan when a plant is young and leaves are soft. Some A. lappa cultivars are specialized for this purpose. A popular Japanese dish is kinpira gobō (金平牛蒡), julienned or shredded burdock root and carrot, braised with soy sauce, sugar, mirin and/or sake, and sesame oil. Another is burdock makizushi (sushi filled with pickled burdock root; the burdock root is often artificially coloured orange to resemble a carrot).

In the second half of the 20th century, burdock achieved international recognition for its culinary use due to the increasing popularity of the macrobiotic diet, which advocates its consumption. It contains a fair amount of dietary fiber (GDF, 6 g per 100 g), calcium, potassium, and amino acids,[11] and is low in calories. It contains the prebiotic fiber inulin.[12] It contains a polyphenol oxidase,[13] which causes its darkened surface and muddy harshness by forming tannin-iron complexes. Burdock root's harshness harmonizes well with pork in miso soup (tonjiru) and with Japanese-style pilaf (takikomi gohan).

Dandelion and burdock is today a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom, which has its origins in hedgerow mead commonly drunk in the mediæval period.[14] Burdock is believed to be a galactagogue, a substance that increases lactation, but it is sometimes recommended to be avoided during pregnancy based on animal studies that show components of burdock to cause uterus stimulation.[15]

In Europe, burdock root was used as a bittering agent in beer before the widespread adoption of hops for this purpose.
Traditional medicine

The seeds of A. lappa are used in traditional Chinese medicine under the name niubangzi (Chinese: 牛蒡子; pinyin: niúbángzi; some dictionaries list the Chinese as just Chinese: 牛蒡; pinyin: niúbàng).[16]

Burdock is a traditional medicinal herb used for many ailments. Burdock root oil extract, also called bur oil, is used in Europe as a scalp treatment.[17]
In culture
Burdock Kilim motifs

Black from dust but still alive and red in the center. It reminded me of Hadji Murad. It makes me want to write. It asserts life to the end, and alone in the midst of the whole field, somehow or other had asserted it.
— Russian author Leo Tolstoy, in his journal (July, 1896) of a tiny shoot of burdock he saw in a ploughed field

In Turkish Anatolia, the burdock plant was believed to ward off the evil eye, and as such is often a motif appearing woven into kilims for protection. With its many flowers, the plant also symbolizes abundance.[18] Before and during World War II, Japanese soldiers were issued a 15-1/2-inch bayonet held in a black-painted scabbard, the juken. Their nickname was the burdock sword (gobo ken).
Inspiration for velcro

After taking his dog for a walk one day in the late 1940s (1948), George de Mestral, a Swiss inventor, became curious about the seeds of the burdock plant that had attached themselves to his clothes and to the dog's fur. Under a microscope, he looked closely at the hook system that the seeds use to hitchhike on passing animals aiding seed dispersal, and he realized that the same approach could be used to join other things together. His work led to the development of the hook and loop fastener, which was initially sold under the Velcro brand name.[19]

Serbo-Croatian uses the same word, čičak, for burdock and velcro;[20] Turkish does the same with the name pitrak, while in the Polish language rzep means both "burr" and "velcro". The German word for burdock is Klette and velcro is Klettverschluss (= burdock fastener). In Norwegian burdock is borre and velcro borrelås, which translates to "burdock lock".[21]
References

"Global Compositae Checklist". Archived from the original on 6 November 2014.
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 816
"Arctium". Flora of North America. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
"Don't Cut Your Burdock Down!". Vermont: Calidonia Spirits. August 2015. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.
"Arctium L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
Collins Dictionary
"Chapter Begins Burdock Removal Project". Greater Bozeman, MT: Sacajawea Audubon Society. August 2012. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
Calapai, G; Miroddi, M; Minciullo, PL; Caputi, AP; Gangemi, S; Schmidt, RJ (July 2014). "Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa". Contact Dermatitis. 71 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1111/cod.12222. PMID 24621152. S2CID 30930806.
Nyerges, Christopher (2017). Foraging Washington: Finding, Identifying, and Preparing Edible Wild Foods. Guilford, CT: Falcon Guides. ISBN 978-1-4930-2534-3. OCLC 965922681.
Szczawinski, A.F.; Turner, N.J. (1978). Edible Garden Weeds of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
"ゴボウの皮はむかないのが"新常識" (06/01/19) - ニュース - nikkei BPnet". Archived from the original on 4 September 2012.
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/aib/v84/1808-1657-aib-84-e0522016.pdf[bare URL PDF]
Extraction, Partial Characterization, and Inhibition Patterns of Polyphenol Oxidase from Burdock (Arctium lappa). Mie S. Lee-Kim, Eun S. Hwang and Kyung H. Kim, Enzymatic Browning and Its Prevention, Chapter 21, pp. 267–276, doi:10.1021/bk-1995-0600.ch021
"Mead Recipes: Dandelion and Burdock Beer". Dyfed Lloyd Evans. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
"Burdock (Arctium lappa): MedlinePlus Supplements". Nlm.nih.gov. 20 July 2010. Archived from the original on 17 July 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
Chen, WC; Hsu, YJ; Lee, MC; Li, HS; Ho, CS; Huang, CC; Chen, FA (2017). "Effect of burdock extract on physical performance and physiological fatigue in mice". J Vet Med Sci. 79 (10): 1698–1706. doi:10.1292/jvms.17-0345. PMC 5658563. PMID 28890521.
Balch, Phyllis A. (1 January 2002). Prescription for Herbal Healing. Penguin. ISBN 9780895298690.
Erbek, Güran (1998). Kilim Catalogue No. 1. May Selçuk A. S. Edition=1st. pp. 4–30.
Strauss, Steven D. (December 2001). The Big Idea: How Business Innovators Get Great Ideas to Market. Kaplan Business. pp. 15–pp.18. ISBN 0-7931-4837-5. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
"čičak (Hrvatski jezični portal)" (in Croatian). Novi Liber. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
"Borrelås". Språkrådet (in Norwegian Nynorsk). Retrieved 13 September 2021.

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