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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Magnoliids
Ordo: Piperales

Familia: Aristolochiaceae
Subfamiliae: Aristolochioideae – Asaroideae – Hydnoroideae
Genera: AristolochiaAsarumHeterotropaHydnoraLactorisPararistolochiaProsopancheSarumaThottea
Name

Aristolochiaceae Juss., Gen. Pl. 72–73. (1789) nom. cons.

Type genus: Aristolochia L. Sp. Pl. 2: 960. (1753)

Synonyms

Asaraceae Vent., Tabl. Règne Vég. 2: 226. (1799)
Hydnoraceae C. Agardh Aphorismi Botanici (7): 88 (1821)
Sarumaceae Nakai, nom. nud.
Lactoridaceae Engler, nom. cons.

References

Jussieu, A.L. de 1789. Genera Plantarum: 72–73. BHL
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Massoni, J., Forest, F. & Sauquet, H.J.X. 2014. Increased sampling of both genes and taxa improves resolution of phylogenetic relationships within Magnoliidae, a large and early-diverging clade of angiosperms. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 84–93. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.09.010 ResearchGate Reference page.
Naumann, J., Salomo, K., Der, J.P., Wafula, E.K.,Bolin, J.F., Maass, E., Frenzke, L., Samain, M.S., Neinhuis, C. & Wanke, S. 2013. Single-copy nuclear genes place haustorial Hydnoraceae within Piperales and reveal a Cretaceous origin of multiple parasitic angiosperm lineages. PLoS One 8(11), p.e79204. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079204 Full text PDF Reference page.
Nickrent, D.L., Blarer, A., Qiu, Y.L., Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S. & Zanis, M. 2002. Molecular data place Hydnoraceae with Aristolochiaceae. American Journal of Botany 89(11): 1809-1817. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.89.11.1809 Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2015. Aristolochiaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Feb. 24.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: زراوندية
asturianu: Aristoloquiacees
azərbaycanca: Zəravəndkimilər
беларуская: Кірказонавыя
català: Aristoloquiàcies
čeština: Podražcovité
dansk: Slangerod-familien
Deutsch: Osterluzeigewächse
English: Birthwort family
Esperanto: Aristolokiacoj
español: Aristoloquiáceas
eesti: Tobiväädilised
فارسی: زرآوندیان
suomi: Piippuruohokasvit
galego: Aristoloquiáceas
עברית: ספלוליים
hrvatski: Kopitnjakovke
hornjoserbsce: Kokornakowe rostliny
magyar: Farkasalmafélék
հայերեն: Զրվանդազգիներ
日本語: ウマノスズクサ科
ქართული: ძირმწარასებრნი
қазақша: Жиренше тұқымдасы
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅರಿಸ್ಟೋಲೋಕಿಯೇಸಿ
한국어: 쥐방울덩굴과
kurdî: Famîleya zirnevanan
lietuvių: Kartuoliniai
latviešu: Aristolohiju dzimta
മലയാളം: അരിസ്റ്റോലോക്കിയേസീ
Nederlands: Pijpbloemfamilie
norsk: Holurtfamilien
polski: Kokornakowate
русский: Кирказоновые
slovenčina: Vlkovcovité
svenska: Piprankeväxter
తెలుగు: అరిస్టోలోకియేసి
ไทย: วงศ์ไก่ฟ้า
Türkçe: Loğusa otugiller
українська: Хвилівникові
Tiếng Việt: Họ Mộc hương nam
中文(简体): 马兜铃科
中文(繁體): 馬兜鈴科

The Aristolochiaceae (English: /əˌrɪstəˈloʊkiəsii/) are a family, the birthwort family, of flowering plants with seven genera and about 400 known species belonging to the order Piperales. The type genus is Aristolochia L.

Description

They are mostly perennial, herbaceous plants, shrubs, or lianas. The membranous, cordate simple leaves are spread out, growing alternately along the stem on leaf stalks. The margins are commonly entire. No stipules are present. The bizarre flowers are large to medium-sized, growing in the leaf axils. They are bilaterally or radially symmetrical.
Classification

Aristolochiaceae are magnoliids, a basal group of angiosperms which are not part of the large categories of monocots or eudicots. As of APG IV (2016), the former families Hydnoraceae and Lactoridaceae are included, because exclusion would make Aristolochiaceae in the traditional sense paraphyletic.[1]

Some newer classification schemes, such as the update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, place the family Aristolochiaceae in the order Piperales, but it is still quite common, though superseded, for the Aristolochiaceae to be assigned, sometimes with some other families, their own order (Aristolochiales).
Phylogeny

Four assemblages can be distinguished in the genus-level cladogram of Aristolochiaceae:

Aristolochia is closely related to Thottea.
Hydnora is closely related to Prosopanche.
Lactoris occupies an isolated position.
Asarum is closely related to Saruma, and both genera display a deep-branching position in the family.

Genus-level cladogram of the Aristolochiaceae.

  Aristolochiaceae  
  Asaroideae  

  Asarum L. 1753

  Saruma Oliver 1889[2]

  Lactoridoideae  

  Lactoris Philippi 1865

  Hydnoroideae  

  Hydnora Thunberg 1775

  Prosopanche de Bary 1868

  Aristolochioideae  

  Aristolochia L. 1753

  Thottea Rottboell 1783[3]



The phylogeny is based on the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.[4][5]
Phytochemistry

Many members of Aristolochia and some of Asarum contain the toxin aristolochic acid, which discourages herbivores and is known to be carcinogenic in rats. Aristolochia species are carcinogenic to humans.
Genomics
The highly reduced plastid genome map of a member of Aristolochiaceae, Hydnora visseri

The complete plastid genome sequence of one species of Aristolochiaceae, Hydnora visseri, has been determined. As compared to the chloroplast genome of its closest photosynthetic relatives, the plastome of Hydnora visseri shows extreme reduction in both size (ca. 27 kilo base pairs) and gene content (24 genes appear to be functional).[6] This Aristolochiaceae species therefore possesses one of the smallest plastid genomes among flowering plants.[7]
Ecology

Pipevine swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on pipevine (Aristolochia species), and the larvae feed on the plant, but are not affected by the toxin, which then offers the adult butterfly protection against predators.
Fossil record

The oldest fossil leaf remains are of †Aristolochites dentata from the Late Cretaceous of Nebraska, United States. Pollen record of †Aristolochiacidites viluiensis has been described from Upper Cretaceous sediments of Siberia. Fossil wood is known from the Deccan Traps of India some 66 million years ago. Leaf fossils of Aristolochia are known from the Early and Late Tertiary of North America and the Late Tertiary of Abkhazia, Ukrainia and Poland.[8] Fossil leaf remains of †Aristolochia austriaca have been described from Late Miocene sediments of the Pellendorf site at the Vienna Basin in Austria. †A. austriaca is most similar to the extant Mediterranean species A. rotunda and A. baetica.[9]
References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
"GRIN Genera of Aristolochiaceae subfam. Asaroideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
"GRIN Genera of Aristolochiaceae subfam. Aristolochioideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
Stevens, P.F. (2001). "ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Jussieu". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. 13. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
"Family: Aristolochiaceae Juss., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
Naumann, Julia; Der, Joshua P.; Wafula, Eric K.; Jones, Samuel S.; Wagner, Sarah T.; Honaas, Loren A.; Ralph, Paula E.; Bolin, Jay F.; Maass, Erika; Neinhuis, Christoph; Wanke, Stefan; dePamphilis, Claude W. (2016-02-01). "Detecting and Characterizing the Highly Divergent Plastid Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Parasitic Plant Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae)". Genome Biology and Evolution. 8 (2): 345–363. doi:10.1093/gbe/evv256. ISSN 1759-6653. PMC 4779604. PMID 26739167.
List of sequenced plastomes: Flowering plants.
Evolution and Diversification of Land Plants by Kunio Iwatsuki and Peter H. Raven, Springer Science & Business Media, 6. des. 2012
The first fossil Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae, Piperales) leaves from Austria by Barbara Meller, Article number: 17.2.21A, https://doi.org/10.26879/420, Palaeontological Association, May 2014

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