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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Asphodelaceae
Subfamiliae: Asphodeloideae – Hemerocallidoideae – Xanthorrhoeoideae
Overview of genera

Agrostocrinum – Aloe – Aloiampelos – Aloidendron – Aristaloe – Arnocrinum – Asphodeline – Asphodelus – Astroloba – Bulbine – Bulbinella – Caesia – Chortolirion – Corynotheca – Dianella – Eccremis – Eremurus – Gasteria – Geitonoplesium – Gonialoe – Guillauminia – Haworthia – Haworthiopsis – Hemerocallis – Hensmania – Herpolirion – Hodgsoniola – Jodrellia – Johnsonia – Kniphofia – Kumara – Lemeea – Leptaloe – Pasithea – Phormium – Simethis – Stawellia – Stypandra – Thelionema – Trachyandra – Tricoryne – Tulista – Xanthorrhoea

Nothogenus: × Astroworthia

Name

Asphodelaceae Juss., Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 51. (1789) nom. cons. prop.

Type genus: Asphodeline Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs. 116. (1830)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Aloaceae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg. 138 (1802).
Dianellaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl. 66 (1866).
Eustrephaceae Chupov, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 79(3): 7 (1994).
Geitonoplesiaceae R.Dahlgren ex Conran, Telopea 6: 39 (1994).
Hemerocallidaceae R. Br., Prodr.: 295 (1810).
Johnsoniaceae Lotsy, Vortr. Bot. Stammesgesch. 3: 731 (1911).
Phormiaceae J.Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 7 (1858).
Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl. 60, 62, 103. (1829) nom. cons.

References

Jussieu, A.L. de 1789. Genera Plantarum (Jussieu) 51.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Chase, M.W., Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. 2009. A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 132–136. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x Reference page.
Manning, J. Boatwright, J.S., Daru, B.H., Maurin, O. & Bank, M.V.D. 2014. A molecular phylogeny and generic classification of Asphodelaceae subfamily Alooideae: a final resolution of the prickly issue of polyphyly in the alooids? Systematic Botany 39(1): 55–74. DOI: 10.1600/036364414X678044 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.
Trias-Blasi, A., Baker, W.J., Haigh, A.L., Simpson, D.A., Weber, O. & Wilkin, P. 2015. A genus-level phylogenetic linear sequence of monocots. Taxon 64(3): 552-581. DOI: 10.12705/643.9. PDF available online from ResearchGate Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Asphodelaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Feb. 9. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Asphodelaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Feb. 10. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Asphodelaceae. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 10 2019.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2013. Asphodelaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16.

Vernacular names
中文: 独尾草科

Asphodelaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Asparagales.[2] Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists, but the circumscription has varied widely. In its current circumscription in the APG IV system, it includes about 40 genera and 900 known species.[3] The type genus is Asphodelus.

The family has a wide but scattered distribution throughout the tropics and temperate zones. Many of the species are cultivated as ornamentals. A few are grown commercially for cut flowers. Two species of Aloe are grown for their leaf sap, which has medicinal and cosmetic uses. Xanthorrhoea is endemic to Australia.

Description

Members of the Asphodelaceae are diverse, with few characters uniting the three subfamilies currently recognized. The presence of anthraquinones is one common character. The flowers (the inflorescence) are typically borne on a leafless stalk (scape) which arises from a basal rosette of leaves. The individual flowers have jointed stalks (pedicels). A disk of woody tissue (a hypostase) is present at the base of the ovule.[1]

The subfamily Xanthorrhoeoideae contains only the genus Xanthorrhoea, native to Australia. Plants typically develop thick woody stems; the flowers are arranged in a dense spike. Members of the subfamily Asphodeloideae are often leaf succulents, such as aloes and haworthias, although the subfamily also includes ornamental perennials such as red hot pokers (Kniphofia). Members of the subfamily Hemerocallidoideae are varied in habit. Daylilies (Hemerocallis) are one of the widely grown members of this subfamily.[1]
Systematics
Phylogeny

The order Asparagales can be divided into a basal paraphyletic group, the "lower Asparagales", which includes the Asphodelaceae as defined here,[4] and a well-supported monophyletic group of "core Asparagales", comprising Amaryllidaceae sensu lato and Asparagaceae sensu lato.[5] Three separate families were at one time recognized (e.g. in the first APG system of 1998): Asphodelaceae, Hemerocallidaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the three are closely related,[1][6] although Rudall considered that the combination into a single clade was not supported by morphological analysis.[7] The most recent APG classification, the APG IV system of 2016, places the three former families into a single family, the Asphodelaceae sensu lato. The former families are treated as three subfamilies: Asphodeloideae, Hemerocallidoideae and Xanthorrhoeoideae.[8]

The following phylogenetic tree for Asphodelaceae sensu lato is based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences of the chloroplast genes rbcL, matK, and ndhF.[9] All branches have at least 70% bootstrap support. Of the 36 genera recognized by the authors, 29 were sampled. Eccremis was not sampled, but is added here because it is known to be closely related to Pasithea and is often combined with it. Hodgsoniola belongs somewhere in the grade from Tricoryne to Johnsonia. The unsampled genera, Astroloba, Chortolirion and Gasteria, belong to subfamily Asphodeloideae.[10]

Asphodelaceae
Asphodeloideae

Asphodelus

Asphodeline

Eremurus

Trachyandra

Kniphofia

Bulbinella

Bulbine

Jodrellia

Haworthia

Aloe

Xanthorrhoeoideae

Xanthorrhoea

Hemerocallidoideae

Simethis

Hemerocallis

Tricoryne

Corynotheca

Caesia

Arnocrinum

Hensmania

Stawellia

Johnsonia

Eccremis

Pasithea

Phormium

Geitonoplesium

Agrostocrinum

Stypandra

Rhuacophila

Dianella

Thelionema

Herpolirion


History

The family now called Asphodelaceae has had a complex history; its circumscription and placement in an order have varied widely.

In the Cronquist system of 1981, members of the Asphodelaceae were placed in the order Liliales.[11][12] Cronquist had difficulty classifying the less obviously delineated lilioid monocots; consequently, he placed taxa from both the modern orders Asparagales and Liliales into a single family Liliaceae.[7]

In some of the older systems of plant taxonomy, such as the Cronquist system, the plants that now form the family Dasypogonaceae were also considered to belong to this family. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Dasypogonaceae belongs to the commelinids and is therefore not even in the same order as Asphodelaceae.

The decision to group three formerly separate families, Asphodelaceae sensu stricto, Hemerocallidaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae, into a single family first occurred as an option in the APG II system of 2003. The name used for the broader family was then Xanthorrhoeaceae;[13] earlier references to the Xanthorrhoeaceae relate only to the subfamily Xanthorrhoeoideae. The changes were a consequence of improvement in molecular and morphological analysis and also a reflection of the increased emphasis on placing families within an appropriate order.[14][7][15]

The APG III system of 2009 dropped the option of keeping the three families separate, using only the expanded family, still under the name Xanthorrhoeaceae.[14] Anticipating a decision to conserve the name Asphodelaceae over Xanthorrhoeaceae (which came to pass in 2017), the APG IV system uses Asphodelaceae as the name for the expanded family.[2] The three previous families were then the subfamilies Asphodeloideae, Hemerocallidoideae and Xanthorrhoeoideae. Earlier these three had been treated as separate families.[8]

The family Asphodelaceae was made a nomen conservandum (conserved name) in 2017. Previously, the name Xanthorrhoeaceae had priority.[14] This was anticipated in the APG IV family lists.[2]
Genera

The genera listed below are from the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families,[16] with the division into subfamilies based on APWeb as of December 2010.

Subfamily Asphodeloideae Burnett

Aloe L.
Astroloba Uitewaal
Asphodeline Rchb.
Asphodelus L.
Bulbine Wolf
Bulbinella Kunth
Chortolirion A.Berger
Eremurus M.Bieb.
Gasteria Duval
Gonialoe (Baker) Boatwr. & J.C.Manning
Haworthia Duval
Jodrellia Baijnath
Kniphofia Moench
Lomatophyllum Willdenow – synonym of Aloe
Poellnitzia Uitewaal – synonym of Astroloba
Trachyandra Kunth
Tulista Raf.

Subfamily Hemerocallidoideae Lindley

Agrostocrinum F.Muell.
Arnocrinum Endl.
Caesia R.Br.
Corynotheca F.Muell.
Dianella Lam.
Excremis Willd.
Geitonoplesium A.Cunn.
Hemerocallis L.
Hensmania W.Fitzg.
Herpolirion Hook.f.
Hodgsoniola F.Muell.
Johnsonia R.Br.
Pasithea D.Don
Phormium J.R.Forst.
Rhuacophila Blume – synonym of Dianella
Stypandra R.Br.
Simethis Kunth
Stawellia F.Muell.
Thelionema R.J.F.Hend.
Tricoryne R.Br.

Subfamily Xanthorrhoeoideae M.W.Chase, Reveal & M.F.Fay

Xanthorrhoea Sm.

The genus Xeronema is now placed in a separate family, the Xeronemataceae.[2]
References

Stevens, P.F. "Asphodelaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
Christenhusz, M.J.M. & Byng, J.W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Rudall, P.; Furness, C.A.; Chase, M.W. & Fay, M.F. (1997), "Microsporogenesis and pollen sulcus type in Asparagales (Lilianae)", Can. J. Bot., 75 (3): 408–430, doi:10.1139/b97-044
Stevens, P.F. "Asparagales". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
Chase, M.W.; De Bruijn, A.Y.; Cox, A.V.; Reeves, G.; Rudall, P.; Johnson, M.A.T. & Eguiarte, L.E. (2000). "Phylogenetics of Asphodelaceae (Asparagales): An analysis of Plastid rbcL and trnL-F DNA sequences". Annals of Botany. 86 (5): 935–951. doi:10.1006/anbo.2000.1262.
Rudall, P. J. (2003). "Unique Flower Structures and Iterative Evolutionary Themes in Asparagales: Insights from a Morphological Cladistic Analysis". The Botanical Review. 68 (4): 488–509. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0488:UFSAIE]2.0.CO;2.
Chase, M. W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (August 2009). "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 132–136. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x.
Dion S. Devey, Ilia Leitch, Paula J. Rudall, J. Chris Pires, Yohan Pillon, and Mark W. Chase. 2006. "Systematics of Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu lato, with an emphasis on Bulbine". Aliso 22(Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution):345-351. ISSN 0065-6275.
Kubitski, Klaus, ed. (27 August 1998). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume III. Berlin;Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-64060-8.
Cronquist, A. (1981). An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York: Columbia University Press.
Beadle, N.C.W. (1981). The Vegetation of Australia. London: Cambridge University Press.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2010.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998). "An ordinal classification of the families of flowering plants". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 85 (4): 531–553. doi:10.2307/2992015. JSTOR 2992015.
Search for "Xanthorrhoeaceae", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 25 February 2013

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