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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: AnthemideaeAstereae – Athroismeae – BahieaeCalenduleaeChaenactideaeCoreopsideaeEupatorieae – Feddeeae – GnaphalieaeHelenieaeHeliantheaeInuleaeMadieaeMillerieaeNeurolaeneaePerityleaePolymnieaeSenecioneaeTageteae

Name

Asteroideae Lindl. (1829)

Type genus: Aster L.

References

Lindley, J. in Loudon 1829. Encycl. Pl. 1074.
Baldwin, B.G., Wessa, B.L. & Panero, J.L. 2002. Nuclear rDNA evidence for major lineages of helenioid Heliantheae (Compositae). Systematic Botany 27(1): 161–198. DOI: 10.1043/0363-6445-27.1.161 ResearchGate Reference page.
Funk V.A., Susanna A., Stuessy T.F. & Robinson H. 2009. Classification of Compositae. pp. 171–189. In Funk V.A., Susanna A., Stuessy T.F. & Bayer, R.J. (Eds.): Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae. Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT). ISBN 978-3-9501754-3-1. PDF Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: نجماوات
беларуская: Астравыя, падсямейства
català: Asteròidia, Tubuliflores, Asteròidies
Deutsch: Tubuliflorae
English: Tubuliflorae
فارسی: کاسنیان آستروئیده
magyar: Csövesvirágúak, Őszirózsaformák, Tubuliflorae
日本語: キク亜科
한국어: 국화아과
polski: Tubuliflorae, Rurkokwiatowe
русский: Астровые
Türkçe: Asteriodeae
українська: Айстрові
Tiếng Việt: Phân họ Cúc
中文: 紫菀亚科

Asteroideae is a subfamily of the plant family Asteraceae. It contains about 70% of the species of the family.[2] It consists of several tribes, including Astereae, Calenduleae, Eupatorieae, Gnaphalieae, Heliantheae, Senecioneae and Tageteae. Asteroideae contains plants found all over the world, many of which are shrubby. There are about 1,135 genera and 17,200 species within this subfamily; the largest genera by number of species are Helichrysum (500–600) and Artemisia (550).

Asteroideae is said to date back to approximately 46–36.5 million years ago.[3]

Common characteristics

This family will often have radiate style heads but some could have discoid or disciform. They contain ray florets that are three lobed and are also considered perfect flower implying that it is bisexual. Many contain stigmatic surfaces that are separated by two marginal bands and terminal sterile appendages with sweeping hairs.[4]
Taxonomy

This subfamily is composed of 21 tribes that are broken into 3 supertribes: Senecionodae, Asterodae, and Helianthodae. Senecioneae contains about 120 genera and more than 3,200 species that are found in more temperate areas.[5] Asterodae contains many economically important plants such as the chrysanthemums, common daisy, and the asters. The third super tribe is the Helianthodae, which is the largest of the three, containing 16 of the 21 tribes.[6]

Since 2004, the 21 tribes have been grouped into three supertribes:[2][7][8]

Senecionodae
Senecioneae (Doronicum is sometimes placed in a separate tribe Doroniceae[9])
Asterodae
Anthemideae (including chrysanthemums)
Astereae (including asters and the common daisy)
Calenduleae (including calendulas)
Gnaphalieae
Helianthodae
Athroismeae
Bahieae
Chaenactideae
Coreopsideae (including cosmos and dahlias)
Eupatorieae
Feddeeae
Helenieae (including gaillardias)
Heliantheae (including sunflowers and zinnias)
Inuleae (including Plucheeae)[10]
Madieae
Millerieae
Neurolaeneae
Perityleae
Polymnieae
Tageteae (including marigolds)

Uses

The subfamily Asteroideae has many genera within the tribes that have economic uses. Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke), Helianthus annuus (sunflower) and Guizotia abyssinica (niger seed) are all used as oil seed crops. Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon) is used as a culinary herb and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) is a rubber source. Some of the other genera are used as ornamentals; those are Dendranthema spp. (chrysanthemum), Callistephus, Cosmos, Tagetes (marigold), and many others.[11]
References

UniProt. "Asteroideae". Retrieved 2008-06-13.
Asteraceae, Tree of Life Web Project
Huang, C. -H; Zhang, C; Liu, M; Hu, Y; Gao, T; Qi, J; Ma, H (2016). "Multiple polyploidization events across Asteraceae with two nested events in the early history revealed by nuclear phylogenomics". Mol. Biol. Evol. 33 (11): 2820–2835. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw157. PMC 5062320. PMID 27604225.
Lindley, J. "The Vegetable Kingdom".
Barkley, Theodore M.; Brouillet, Luc; Strother, John L. "Asteraceae tribe Senecioneae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 19, 20, and 21. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Panero, J.L; Crozier, B.S. "Asteraceae: Sunflowers, daisies". Tree of Life. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
Robinson, Harold (2004). "New supertribes, Helianthodae and Senecionodae, for the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae)". Phytologia. 86 (86): 116–120. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.28428. ISSN 0031-9430. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
Harold Robinson, Edward Schilling and José L. Panero. "Eupatorieae" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
Fernandez, I (2001), "A Phylogenetic Analysis of Doronicum (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) Based on Morphological, Nuclear Ribosomal (ITS), and Chloroplast (trnL-F) Evidence", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 20 (1): 41–64, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.331.4339, doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.0954, PMID 11421647
Anderberg, A (2005), "Evolutionary relationships in the Asteraceae tribe Inuleae (incl. Plucheeae) evidenced by DNA sequences of F; with notes on the systematic positions of some aberrant genera", Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 5 (2): 135–146, doi:10.1016/j.ode.2004.10.015
Murrell, Z.E (2010). Vascular Plant Taxonomy. Kendall Hunt Publishing Compant.

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