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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Chloridoideae
Tribus: Cynodonteae
Subtribus: Boutelouinae
Genus: Bouteloua
Species: B. alamosana – B. americana – B. annua – B. aristidoides – B. barbata – B. bracteata – B. breviseta – B. chasei – B. chihuahuana – B. chondrosioides – B. curtipendula – B. dactyloides – B. dimorpha – B. distans – B. disticha – B. diversispicula – B. elata – B. eludens – B. erecta – B. eriopoda – B. eriostachya – B. gracilis – B. griffithsii – B. hirsuta – B. johnstonii – B. juncea – B. karwinskii – B. kayi – B. longiseta – B. media – B. megapotamica – B. mexicana – B. multifida – B. nervata – B. parryi – B. pedicellata – B. polymorpha – B. purpurea – B. quiriegoensis – B. radicosa – B. ramosa – B. reederorum – B. reflexa – B. repens – B. rigidiseta – B. scabra – B. scorpioides – B. simplex – B. stolonifera – B. swallenii – B. triaena – B. trifida – B. uniflora – B. vaneedenii – B. varia – B. warnockii – B. williamsii
Name

Bouteloua Lag., Varied. Ci. 2(4): 134 (1805)

Type species: Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Botelua Lag., Varied. Ci. 2(4): 134 (1805)
Atheropogon Muhl. ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 937 (1806)
Chondrosum Desv., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 188 (1810)
Corethrum Vahl, Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 6: 85 (1810)
Heterosteca Desv., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 188 (1810)
Triathera Desv., Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 188 (1810)
Polyodon Kunth in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 174 (1816)
Pentarrhaphis Kunth in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 177 (1816)
Triaena Kunth in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 178 (1816)
Bulbilis Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 4: 190 (1819)
Eutriana Trin., Fund. Agrost.: 161 (1820)
Cathestecum J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 294 (1830)
Opizia J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 293 (1830)
Aristidium (Endl.) Lindl., Veg. Kingd., ed. 2: 116 (1847)
Calanthera Hook., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 8: 18 (1856)
Buchloe Engelm., Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 1: 432 (1859)
Pringleochloa Scribn., Bot. Gaz. 21: 137 (1896)
Cyclostachya Reeder & C.Reeder, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 195 (1963)
Buchlomimus Reeder, C.Reeder & Rzed., Brittonia 17: 29 (1965)
Soderstromia C.V.Morton, Leafl. W. Bot. 10: 327 (1966)
Griffithsochloa G.J.Pierce, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105: 134 (1978)

References

Lagasca y Segura, M. 1805. Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134.
Columbus, J.T. 1999. An expanded circumscription of Bouteloua (Gramineae: Chloridoideae): New combinations and names, Aliso 18: 61–65.
Columbus, J.T., Kinney, M.S., Siqueiros Delgado, M.E. & Porter, M.J. 2000. Phylogenetics of Bouteloua and relatives (Gramineae: Chloridoideae): cladistic parsimony analysis of internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA) and trnL-F (cpDNA), in Grasses: Systematics and Evolution, Jacobs, S.W.L.& Everett, J. (Eds), CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood Australia.
Peterson, P.M., Romaschenko, K. & Johnson, G. 2010. A classification of the Chloridoideae (Poaceae) based on multi-gene phylogenetic trees. Mol. Phylog. Evolut. 55 (2): 580–598.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2016. Bouteloua in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2016 Jan. 7. Reference page.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Bouteloua. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Oct. 31.
Tropicos.org 2013. Bouteloua. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Oct. 31.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Bouteloua. Published online. Accessed: 31 Oct. 2013.

Vernacular names
English: Grama and Buffalo Grasses
suomi: Gammaheinät

Bouteloua is a genus of plants in the grass family.[4][5] Members of the genus are commonly known as grama grass.[6]

Taxonomy and systematics

The genus was named for Claudio and Esteban Boutelou, 19th-century Spanish botanists.[7][8] David Griffiths produced a 1912 monograph on the genus.[9]
Description
The top of a hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta) flower spike, showing the flattened rachis

Bouteloua includes both annual and perennial grasses, which frequently form stolons.[9] Species have an inflorescence of 1 to 80 racemes or spikes positioned alternately on the culm (stem). The rachis (stem) of the spike is flattened. The spikelets are positioned along one side of the spike. Each spikelet contains one fertile floret, and usually one sterile floret.[10]
Distribution

Bouteloua is found only the Americas, with most diversity centered in the southwestern United States.[9]
Uses

Many species are important livestock forage, especially blue grama.[9]
Species

Species of Bouteloua include:[3][6][11][12][13]

Bouteloua alamosana Vasey – Mesoamerica
Bouteloua americana (L.) Scribn. – American grama – southern Mexico, Central America, West Indies, northern South America
Bouteloua annua Swallen – Baja California Sur, Sonora
Bouteloua aristidoides (Kunth) Griseb. – needle grama – United States (California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Texas); Mexico, South America, Aruba
Bouteloua barbata Lag. – six-weeks grama – United States, Mexico
Bouteloua bracteata (McVaugh) Columbus – Michoacán
Bouteloua breviseta Vasey – United States, Mexico
Bouteloua chondrosioides (Kunth) Benth. ex S.Watson – sprucetop grama – United States (AZ TX); Mesoamerica
Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. – sideoats grama – widespread in USA, Canada, Mexico
Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus – buffalograss – USA, Canada, Mexico
Bouteloua dimorpha Columbus – Great Plains in USA, Canada, Mexico, Honduras, Cuba, Trinidad
Bouteloua distans Swallen – Mexico
Bouteloua disticha (Kunth) Benth. – from southern Mexico to Ecuador; also Cuba, Galápagos
Bouteloua eludens Griffiths – USA (Arizona, New Mexico), Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora)
Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. – United States, Mexico
Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths – blue grama – Great Plains in USA, Canada, Mexico
Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. – USA (Great Plains, Southwest), Mexico, Guatemala
Bouteloua johnstonii Swallen – Coahuila
Bouteloua juncea (Desv. ex Beauv.) A.S.Hitchc. – lamilla – Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico
Bouteloua media (E.Fourn.) Gould & Kapadia – from central Mexico to Uruguay
Bouteloua megapotamica (Spreng.) Kuntze – Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia
Bouteloua mexicana (Scribn.) Columbus – Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras
Bouteloua multifida (Griffiths) Columbus – from Sonora to Oaxaca
Bouteloua nervata Swallen – Hidalgo, México State
Bouteloua parryi (E. Fourn.) Griffiths – Parry's Grama, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Northern Mexico
Bouteloua pedicellata Swallen – Puebla, Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Tlaxcala, Nuevo León, Veracruz
Bouteloua polymorpha (E.Fourn.) Columbus – from Durango to Oaxaca
Bouteloua purpurea Gould & Kapadia – Guanajuato, D.F., San Luis Potosí, México State, Hidalgo, Querétaro
Bouteloua radicosa (E. Fourn.) Griffiths – purple grama – USA (Arizona, New Mexico), Mexico (Chihuahua, Michoacán, Coahuila, Morelos, Puebla, Durango, Zacatecas, Distrito Federal de México, Jalisco, Nuevo León, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Tamaulipas)
Bouteloua reederorum Columbus – Durango, Puebla, Zacatecas, Oaxaca
Bouteloua reflexa Swallen – Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Nayarit
Bouteloua repens (Kunth) Scribn. & Merr. – slender grama – Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Mesoamerica, Colombia, Venezuela, West Indies
Bouteloua rigidiseta (Steud.) Hitchc. – Texas grama – New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Durango)
Bouteloua simplex Lag. Much of southwestern and central United States, Central America, western South America
Bouteloua scabra (Kunth) Columbus – from Hidalgo to Honduras
Bouteloua stolonifera Scribn. – San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas
Bouteloua swallenii Columbus – from El Salvador to Venezuela
Bouteloua triaena (Trin. ex Spreng.) Scribn. – from Sinaloa to Guatemala
Bouteloua trifida Thunb. – Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Mexico
Bouteloua uniflora Vasey – Nealley grama, oneflower grama – Utah, Texas, Coahuila, Zacatecas, Nuevo León, Querétaro, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas
Bouteloua vaneedenii Pilg. – Cuba, Leeward Islands, Venezuela
Bouteloua warnockii Gould & Kapadia – Warnock's grama – New Mexico, Texas, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas
Bouteloua williamsii Swallen – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras

Formerly included

Some grass species, formerly classified under Bouteloua, have been reclassified under other genera including:[3]

Cathestecum
Chondrosum
Neobouteloua

See also

List of Poaceae genera

References

"Bouteloua". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2018-07-13.
"Bouteloua". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden.
"Bouteloua". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Lagasca y Segura, Mariano. 1805. Variedades de Ciencias, Literatura y Artes 2(4,21): 134
Watson L, Dallwitz MJ. (2008). "The grass genera of the world: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references". The Grass Genera of the World. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
"Bouteloua". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
Peterson, P. M. & Y. Herrera-Arrieta. 2001. Bouteloua. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 41: 20–33
Gould, F. W. 1980. The genus Bouteloua (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 66(3): 348–416
Gould, Frank W. (1951). Grasses of Southwestern United States. University of Arizona Bulletin. Tucson: University of Arizona. pp. 139–140.
Sun, Bi-xing; Phillips, Sylvia M. "Bouteloua". Flora of China. 22 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
"Species Records of Bouteloua". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
"Bouteloua". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014.
Gould, F. W. & R. Moran. 1981. The grasses of Baja California, Mexico. Memoir San Diego Society of Natural History 12: 1–140

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