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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Solanales

Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Petunioideae
Genus: Brunfelsia
Sectiones: B. sect. Brunfelsia – B. sect. Franciscea – B. sect. Guianenses
Species: B. acunae – B. amazonica – B. americana – B. australis – B. bahiensis – B. boliviana – B. bonodora – B. brasiliensis – B. burchellii – B. cabiesesiana – B. cestroides – B. chiricaspi – B. chocoensis – B. clandestina – B. clarensis – B. cuneifolia – B. densifolia – B. dwyeri – B. grandiflora – B. grisebachii – B. guianensis – B. hydrangeiformis – B. imatacana – B. jamaicensis – B. lactea – B. latifolia – B. linearis – B. macrocarpa – B. macroloba – B. maliformis – B. martiana – B. membranacea – B. mire – B. nitida – B. obovata – B. pauciflora – B. picardae – B. pilosa – B. plicata – B. plowmaniana – B. pluriflora – B. portoricensis – B. purpurea – B. rupestris – B. shaferi – B. sinuata – B. splendida – B. undulata – B. uniflora
Name

Brunfelsia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 191 (1753) nom. cons. orth. cons.

Type species: Brunfelsia americana L., Sp. Pl. 1: 191. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Brunfelsiopsis (Urb.) Post & Kuntze, Lex. 81 (1903).
Type species: B. densifolia Krug & Urb.
Franciscea Pohl, Pl. Brasil. 1: 1 (1826).
Type species: F. uniflora Pohl
Martia Lacerda ex J.A.Schmidt

Notes

This spelling conserved against the original spelling Brunsfelsia.
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 191. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Brunfelsia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Oct. 28. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Brunfelsia. Published online. Accessed: Oct. 28 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Brunfelsia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 28 Oct. 2020.

Vernacular names
English: Yesterday-today-tomorrow, Lady of the Night
suomi: Tohtorinkukat
svenska: Brunfelsiasläktet


Brunfelsia is a genus of flowering plants belonging to subfamily Petunioideae of the nightshade family Solanaceae. The 50 or so species have been grouped into the three sections: Brunfelsia (circa 22 species), Franciscea (circa 18 species) and Guianenses (circa 6 species), which differ significantly in both distribution and characteristics, although molecular data have revealed that only two sections are natural (monophyletic), namely the Caribbean section Brunfelsia and a common section for all South American species.[1] Linnaeus named the genus for the early German herbalist Otto Brunfels (1488–1534).
Otto Brunfels, German theologian and botanist in whose honour the genus Brunfelsia is named.

Common names for the genus include raintree, yesterday-today-tomorrow and lady of the night.[2]

Brunfelsia spp. are neotropical shrubs, small trees and (rarely) lianas. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, and usually oval in shape. The large flowers have salverform corollas with five broad lobes and narrow tubes.

Typical habitat for wild species is light woodland and thickets.

Taxonomy

The genus was described by French botanist and churchman Charles Plumier ex L. and published in Species Plantarum 1: 191 in the year 1753. The type species is Brunfelsia americana.
Description

Shrubs or small trees, without thorns. Leaves simple, entire and petiolate (stalked). Inflorescences in subterminal fascicles or flowers borne singly in leaf axils, often showy and sometimes also night-scented, zygomorphic; calyx campanulate, 5-lobed to approximately half its length; corolla hypocrateriform (having salver-shaped limb above narrow tube), 5-lobed; stamens 4, anthers oblong or elliptical, included and dehiscing longitudinally; ovary bilocular. Fruit a corky berry.[3]
Ornamental use

Species in cultivation include Brunfelsia americana and Brunfelsia pauciflora. Brunfelsia australis is being actively promoted by growers for its tricolored blooms and drought resistance. As its specific name suggests, B. australis is the Brunfelsia species with the most southerly distribution, the plant occurring as far south as the Argentinian province of Buenos Aires.[4]
Chemistry and Toxicity

Like many other species belonging to the Solanaceae, some (possibly all) members of this genus contain toxic and medicinal alkaloids. These are known to be poisonous to domestic animals such as cats, dogs, and horses due to their brunfelsamidine content.[5] Toxicity in dogs manifests with strychnine-like gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiac symptoms.[6]

The roots of certain Brunfelsia species have been designated as containing compounds hazardous to human health according to a compendium published in 2012 by the European Food Safety Authority. These compounds include indole alkaloids of the β-carboline group such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, harmaline, manacine, manaceine, and also derivatives of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and amidines such as pyrrole 3-carboximidamide.[7]

According to early accounts in the literature, symptoms of poisoning by the medicinal species B. grandiflora include dizziness, exhaustion, nausea, hypersalivation, muscle weakness, lethargy, facial nerve paralysis, mouth pains, swollen tongue, numbness in the extremities, paraesthesias (including tingling and feelings of unbearable coldness) tremors, and blurred vision. At higher does, there are reports of delirium, sustained mental confusion, and possible blindness. Modern reports have compared the experience to the effects of an overdose of nicotine upon non-smokers.[8]
Species

Species include:[2][9]

Brunfelsia americana – American brunfelsia, lady-of-the-night
Brunfelsia australis – Jasmine of Paraguay
Brunfelsia chiricaspi – chiricaspi
Brunfelsia densifolia – Serpentine Hill raintree
Brunfelsia grandiflora – largeflower brunfelsia, chiricsanango
Brunfelsia jamaicensis
Brunfelsia lactea – vega blanca
Brunfelsia latifolia
Brunfelsia membranacea
Brunfelsia nitida – Cuban raintree
Brunfelsia pauciflora
Brunfelsia plowmaniana
Brunfelsia portoricensis – Puerto Rican raintree
Brunfelsia splendida
Brunfelsia uniflora – manacá

Legal status
United States
Louisiana
Except for ornamental purposes, growing, selling or possessing Brunfelsia spp. is prohibited by Louisiana State Act 159.

References

Filipowicz, N. and S. S. Renner. 2012. Brunfelsia (Solanaceae): A genus evenly divided between South America and radiations on Cuba and other Antillean Islands. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64 1-11.
Brunfelsia. USDA PLANTS.
Gentry, J. J. L. & P. C. Standley. 1974. Solanaceae. In Gentry, Jr., J. L. & P. C. Standley (eds.), Flora of Guatemala - Part X, Numbers 1 and 2. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(10/1–2): 1–151.
Kew Plants of the World Online http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:37517-2 Retrieved at 15.42 on 25/8/20.
Brunfelsia. Toxic and Nontoxic Plants. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).
Clipsham, R. (2012). "Brunfelsia australis (yesterday, today, and tomorrow tree) and Solanum poisoning in a dog". J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 48 (2): 139–44. doi:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5725.
Idárraga-Piedrahíta, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
http://entheology.com/plants/brunfelsia-grandiflora-brunfelsia/ Retrieved at 9.52 on 26/8/20.

Species Records of Brunfelsia. Archived 2009-01-20 at the Wayback Machine Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

Further reading
Plowman, T. C. (1979). "The genus Brunfelsia: a conspectus of the taxonomy and biogeography". In Hawkes, J. G.; et al. (eds.). The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press. pp. 475–91.
Plowman, T. C. (1998). "A revision of the South American species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae)". Fieldiana Botany. 39: 1–135.

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