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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Calenduleae
Genera: CalendulaChrysanthemoidesDimorphothecaGaruleumGibbariaOsteospermumOxylaena

Name

Calenduleae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 88: 161. (1819)

Type Genus: Calendula L., Sp. Pl. 2: 921. (1753)

Note: There are problems with the traditional generic circumscription. See Discussion Page for more information.
References

Cassini, A.H.G. de 1819. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 88: 161.
Barker, N.P., Howis, S., Nordenstam, B., Källersjö, M., Eldenäs, P., Griffioen, C. & Linder, H.P. 2009. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA-based phylogenies of Chrysanthemoides Tourn. ex Medik.(Calenduleae; Asteraceae) reveal extensive incongruence and generic paraphyly, but support the recognition of infraspecific taxa in C. monilifera. South African Journal of Botany 75(3): 560–572. DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2009.05.006 Reference page.
Funk, V.A., Susanna, A., Steussy, T.F. & Bayer, R.J. Eds. 2009. Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae. International Association for Plant Taxonomy, University of Vienna. ISBN 978-3-9501754-3-1. see pages 527–538.
Kadereit J.W. & Jeffrey C., Tribe Calenduleae Cass. in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Volume VIII. Asterales, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2007, p. 241.
Manning, J.C. & Goldblatt, P. 2012. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region. Volume 1: The Core Cape Flora. Strelitzia 29: 1–825. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. ISBN 978-1-919976-74-7. PDF. Reference page. pp. 800-802
Nordenstam B. 2006. Generic revisions in the tribe Calenduleae (Compositae). Compositae Newsletter 44: 38-49

Vernacular names
русский: Календуловые
中文: 金盏花族

Calenduleae is a flowering plant tribe of the family Asteraceae. Calenduleae has been widely recognized since Alexandre de Cassini in the early 19th century.[3] There are eight genera and over 110 species, mostly found in South Africa.[4]

It is a relatively stable clade of the Asteraceae, with minor alterations. The tribe also occurs in Southwest Asia, some Atlantic islands, other portions of Africa and Europe, with non-native occurrences in the US, Australia, and New Zealand. However, three new species within the tribe have been discovered as recently as 2003.[5][6]

Description

Plants in Calenduleae vary from herbs to shrubs and usually exhibit showy flower heads. The defining characteristics separating members of this tribe from others within the family are a dimorphism of the cypselae and the fact that each cypsela lacks a pappus.[2] Calenduleae is named for its most economically important genus, Calendula, known in homeopathic remedies and as a common ornamental. Other genera from Calenduleae produce ornamentals as well, including Osteospermum and Dimorphotheca (see Asteraceae for a more general description).
History and phylogeny

Cladistic arrangement of this group of plants has been recognized as far back as Andrea Cesalpino in the 1630s and again by Giulio Pontedera in the 1720s, but the official nomenclature arose after Cassini's work within the family. Early 20th-century botanists placed this tribe as sister to the Senecioneae; however, there has been molecular evidence of closer relationships between the Astereae and the Calenduleae.[7] This tribe has demonstrated monophyly through chemical analysis of the similar pimerane diterpenes found within all tested species. Osteospermum and Garuleum share the highest number of identical chemical signatures, indicating close phylogenetic relationship and a more recent divergence than other genera of the tribe.[8] One of the newly discovered Osteospermum has provided evidence of a link between Osteospermum and Chrysanthemoides.

There have been some rearrangements of the Calenduleae tribe. Eriachaenium was originally lumped with the Calenduleae but has since been removed. Its placement remains uncertain, although it is now hypothesized to belong to the Cichorioideae. The genus Castalis has been folded into Osteospermum. One recent analysis of the Calenduleae made several phylogenetic discoveries, including:

the Osteospermum section Blaxium is now placed in the genus Dimorphotheca
the subgenus Tripteris was separated from Osteospermum
the genus Oligocarpus was separated from Osteospermum
Osteospermum sanctae-helenae, endemic to St. Helena, now belongs to Oligocarpus.[9]

Image gallery

Osteospermum "Pink Whirls", a cultivar

Dimorphotheca ecklonis syn. Osteospermum ecklonis

Chrysanthemoides monilifera

Calendula officinalis

References

Calenduleae in: Kadereit J.W. & Jeffrey C.,The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Volume VIII. Asterales, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2007
"Calenduleae Cass". Global Compositae Database. Compositae Working Group (CWG). 2022. Retrieved 2022-04-02.
Small, J., M.Sc. (Lond.), Ph. C (1917) The Origin and the Development of the Compositae New Phytologist 16 (7): 157-177
Judd, Campbell, Kellogg, Stevens, Donoghue, ‘Plants Systematics: a Phylogenetic Approach’, Third Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA 2008
Nordenstam, B. (2003) Two New Species of Osteospermum (Compositae-Calenduleae)from Southwestern Cape Province, South Africa, Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60:259-265.
Woods, A. R, Nordenstam, B (2003) An Interesting New Species of Osteospermum (Asteraceae-Calenduleae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa, providing a Link to the Genus Chrysanthemoides 69(4):572-578.
Mishler, B. D, Albert, V.A, Chase, M. W, Karis, P. O., Bremer, K. R. (1996) Character-State Weighting for DNA Restriction-Site Data: Asymmetry, Ancestors and the Asteraceae, Cladistics 12 (1): 11-19
Alvarenga, S. A. V., Ferreira, M. J. P., Rodrigues, G. V. and Emerenciano, V. P. (2005) A general survey and some taxonomic implications of diterpenes in the Asteraceae, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 147:291-303.
Nordenstam, B. and Trift, I. (1999) A phylogenetic Study of the Calenduleae (Asteraceae), XVI International Botanical Congress Session 3.9.6: 3885

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