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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Astereae
Subtribus: Asterinae
Genus: Callistephus
Species: C. chinensis
Name

Callistephus Cass. (1825), nom. cons.

Type species: C. chinensis (L.) Nees

Synonyms

Homotypic
Callistemma Cass., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1817: 32. 1817, nom. rej.

References

Cassini, A.H.G. de in Cuvier, G.-F. 1825: Dict. Sci. Nat. 37: 491.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Callistephus in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2011 Sept 08.

Callistephus /kæˈlɪstɪfəs/[3] is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae, containing the single species Callistephus chinensis. Its common names include China aster and annual aster.[4][5] It is native to China and Korea.[4][6] and it is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant in cottage gardens and as a cut flower.[2][7]

Description

This is an annual or biennial plant with one erect, mostly unbranched stem growing 20–100 cm (7.9–39.4 in) tall. The alternately arranged leaves vary in shape or size. The basal leaves usually fall away before flowering. Leaves around the middle of the stem are a few centimeters long and are borne on winged petioles. The blades have serrated edges. Leaves toward the top may have smooth edges. The large solitary flower head grows at the top of the stem and sometimes on branches. The head is lined with layers of phyllaries, those in the outer layer large and leaflike, measuring up to 3 centimeters long. The inner layer can be purple-tinged. The head contains one or two rings of ray florets, most often in shades of reddish purple.[8] The flowering period is from August to October in the northern hemisphere.[4]
Cultivation

This species has been grown and bred extensively in cultivation. Cultivars are available with flowers of many colors, varying heights, and single and double heads. In the wild, they are purple in color.[6] There are several cultivars with flowers of different colors. Cultivars with flowers of other colors were obtained in particular by hybridization. Cultivated varieties can have ray florets in most any color, including red, pink, blue, purple, and white. They are up to 3.5 centimeters long. There are many yellow disc florets in the center. The fruit is a rough-textured, glandular, purple-mottled cypsela that turns gray with age. It has a pappus composed of one outer layer of reddish scales and two inner layers of white bristles.[7][9]

It has been in cultivation in Europe since 1728 at the latest. In China, it has been cultivated for 2000 years.
Distribution

This plant is a naturalized species in some areas outside of its native range (Indochina, Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, etc.) and can be found on the edges of deciduous forests.[2] It grows at altitudes from 300 to 2700 above mean sea level. As ornamental plant it thrives on fresh, nutrient-rich, easy-humus rich soils in warm humid air conditioning.[10]
Pests and diseases

The plants are susceptible to fusarium wilt, a fungal disease. Some cultivars are more resistant to this than others. Pest insects can include leafhoppers, aphids, blister beetles, and the tarnished plant bug. The plant is also susceptible to mites.[5]

References
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Callistephus.

Nesom, G. L. (1994). Subtribal classification of the Astereae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 76, 193–274. Cited in: Noyes, R. D. and L. H. Rieseberg (1999). ITS sequence data support a single origin for North American Astereae (Asteraceae) and reflect deep geographic divisions in Aster s. l. American Journal of Botany 86, 398–412.
"Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist". Archived from the original on 2014-11-11. Retrieved 2014-11-11.
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
"Callistephus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 10 January 2018.
Gilman, E. F. and T. Howe. Callistephus chinensis. Fact Sheet FPS-94. University of Florida IFAS. 1999.
Callistephus chinensis. Missouri Botanical Garden.
Callistephus chinensis. Flora of China.
Li, H., T. Liu, T. Huang, T. Koyama and CE DeVol. 1979. Vascular Plants. Volume 6: 665 pp. In Fl. Taiwan. Epoch Publishing Co., Ltd., Taipei.
Jean Trudel , Gardens and scenery: summer flowers , Saint-Laurent (Quebec), Livre-Loisirs Ltée, 65 p. ISBN 2-89210-229-4
David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses . 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press 2008. Page 138. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4

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