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Calluna vulgaris

Calluna vulgaris (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Ericoideae
Tribus: Ericeae
Genus: Calluna
Species: Calluna vulgaris
Name

Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Brit. Fl., ed. 2, 1: 114 (1808).
Synonyms

Basionym
Erica vulgaris L., Sp. Pl. 1: 352. 1753.

Homotypic
Calluna erica DC. in Lamarck & de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 3: 680. 1805, nom. illeg.
Calluna sagittifolia Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl., 2: 399. 1821, nom. illeg.
Erica sagittifolia Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 2: 370. 1812, nom. illeg.
Ericoides vulgaris (L.) Merino, Fl. Galicia 2: 260. 1906.
Heterotypic
Calluna alpestris Gand., Herbor. Pyrénées: 37, 1884.
Calluna atlantica Seemen, J. Bot. 4: 306, 1866.
Calluna beleziana Rouy, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 42: 500, 1895.
Calluna brumalis Gand., Herbor. Pyrénées: 59, 1884.
Calluna ciliaris Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv. 447, 1866.
Calluna elegantissima Sennen, Bol. Soc. Iber. 1929, 28: 177, 1930.
Calluna vulgaris subsp. elegantissima (Sennen) Mateo, Flora Montiber. 29: 92, 2005.
Calluna erica var. condensata (Lamotte) Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 105, 1908.
Calluna erica var. hirsuta (Gray) Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 105, 1908.
Calluna erica var. patula Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 105, 1908.
Calluna erica var. beleziae (Rouy) Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 106, 1908.
Calluna erica var. olbiensis (Albert) Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 106, 1908.
Calluna genuina Ducommun, Taschenb. Schweiz. Bot. 491, 1869.
Calluna olbiensis Albert, Pl. Nouv. ou Rares (Bull. Soc. Etudes Sc. et Archeol. Draguignan) 60, 1884.
Calluna oviformis Gand., Herbor. Pyrénées: 131, 1875.
Calluna pyrenaica Gand., Herbor. Pyrénées: 21, 1884.
Calluna sagittifolia var. hirsuta Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 399, 1821.
Calluna sancta Gand., Herbor. Pyrénées: 47, 1884.
Calluna vulgaris Salisb., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 6: 317, 1802.
Calluna vulgaris f. alba (Weston) Braun-Blanq., Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 5(3): 1691. 1926.
Calluna vulgaris f. aurea (G.Don) W.Beij., Recueil Trav. Bot. Néerl. 34: 454. 1937.
Calluna vulgaris f. compacta Bejer
Calluna vulgaris f. elegantissima Sennen, Pl. Espagne n.° 5606
Calluna vulgaris f. foxii (Bean) Rehder, Bibliogr. Cult. Trees 539. 1949.
Calluna vulgaris f. humilis Zubía, Fl. Rioja 2: 108. 1921, nom. nud.
Calluna vulgaris f. nana Kirchn.
Calluna vulgaris f. purpurea (G.Don) Braun-Blanq., Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur. 5(3): 1691. 1926.
Calluna vulgaris f. serotina (Loudon) Rehder, Bibliogr. Cult. Trees 539. 1949.
Calluna vulgaris f. searlei (Fraser) Rehder, Bibliogr. Cult. Trees 539. 1949.
Calluna vulgaris var. alba (Weston) G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3: 828. 1834.
Calluna vulgaris var. alba aurea Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 281. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. alba minor Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 281. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. alba pilosa Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 281. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. alba pumila Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 281. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. alportii Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 281. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. argentea Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. aurea Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. ciliaris Döll, Rhein. Fl. 417. 1843.
Calluna vulgaris var. coccinea Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. condensata Lamotte, Prodr. Fl. Plateau Central Fr., 2: 508. 1881.
Calluna vulgaris var. cuprea Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. flore pleno Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. floribunda Sennen, in ?
Calluna vulgaris var. foxii Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. hammondii Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. hirsuta (Gray) Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 105. 1908.
Calluna vulgaris var. hypnoides Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. incana Rchb.f., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. (Reichenbach) 17: 73, t. 1162 fig. 7-11. 1854-55.
Calluna vulgaris var. longipetala Rouy, in?
Calluna vulgaris var. minima Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. patula Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 10: 105. 1908.
Calluna vulgaris var. pubescens W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv. 476. 1835.
Calluna vulgaris var. pubescens Boreau, Fl. Centre France ed. 3 2: 432. 1857, nom. illeg. non W.D.J.Koch. 1835.
Calluna vulgaris var. purpurea G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3: 828. 1834.
Calluna vulgaris var. pygmaea Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. tenuis Bean, Trees & Shrubs Brit. Isles ed. 1, 1: 282. 1914.
Calluna vulgaris var. tomentosa Bréb., Soc. Ét. Fl. Fr.-Helv. 771.
Erica ciliaris Huds., Fl. Angl. 144. 1762, nom. illeg. non L.. 1753
Erica confusa Gand., Fl. Lyon. 149. 1875.
Erica glabra Gilib., Fl. Lit. Inch. 1: 3. 1782, nom. inval.
Erica herbacea Georgi, Beschr. Nation. Russ. Reich 3(4): 935. 1779.
Erica lutescens K.Koch, Dendrologie 2(2): 138. 1873.
Erica nana K.Koch, Dendrologie 2(2): 138. 1873.
Erica prostrata K.Koch, Dendrologie 2(1): 138. 1872.
Erica reginae K.Koch, Dendrologie 2(1): 138. 1872.
Erica sagittifolia var. villosa Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 2: 371. 1812.
Erica vulgaris var. alba Weston, Bot. Univ. 1: 18. 1770.

Calluna vulgaris

Calluna vulgaris (*)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Føroyar, Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden.
Regional: Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic, Slovakia), Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Corse, France, Portugal, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Bulgaria, Italy, Romania, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Montenegro, Serbia & Kosovo, Macedonia).
Regional: Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Morocco.
Regional: Macaronesia
Azores, Madeira.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Siberia
Krasnoyarsk, West Siberia.
Regional: Middle Asia
Kazakhstan.
Regional: Western Asia
Turkey.

Introduced occurrences:

Continental: Australasia
Regional: New Zealand
New Zealand North, New Zealand South.
Continental: Northern America
Regional: Western Canada
British Columbia.
Regional: Eastern Canada
New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia.
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia.
Continental: Antarctic
Regional: Subantarctic Islands
Crozet Islands, Falkland Islands.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Hull, J. 1808. British Flora, or a Linnaean Arrangement of British Plants. Edition 2, 1: 114.
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 352. Reference page. (basionym)

Links

Hassler, M. 2020. Calluna vulgaris. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Apr 27. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Calluna vulgaris in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Apr 27. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Calluna vulgaris. Published online. Accessed: Apr 27 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Calluna vulgaris. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 27 Apr 2020.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Calluna vulgaris in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
العربية: حشيشة المكنسة
žemaitėška: Šėlā
башҡортса: Ябай арса
беларуская (тарашкевіца): Верас
беларуская: Верас
català: Bruguerola
kaszëbsczi: Wrzos
čeština: Vřes obecný
Cymraeg: Grug mêl
dansk: Hedelyng
Deutsch: Besenheide
English: Heather
Esperanto: Kaluno
español: Brecina
eesti: Kanarbik
euskara: Ainar arrunt
فارسی: علف جاروب
suomi: Kanerva
føroyskt: Vanligur heiðalyngur
Nordfriisk: Hiaskrüüs
français: Callune
Gaeilge: Fraoch
galego: Queiroa
hrvatski: Obični Vrijes
magyar: Csarab
հայերեն: Հավամրգի
íslenska: Beitilyng
italiano: Brugo
日本語: ギョリュウモドキ属
қазақша: Көкбұта
한국어: 칼루나
lombard: Brugh
lietuvių: Šilinis Viržis
latviešu: Sila virsis
മലയാളം: കാലൂണ
кырык мары: Йӓнгӓршуды
Mirandés: Urç
эрзянь: Урядыця куракш
norsk bokmål: Røsslyng
Nedersaksies: Bezemheed
Nederlands: Struikhei
norsk nynorsk: Røsslyng
norsk: Røsslyng
ирон: Мыдæг
polski: Wrzos Zwyczajny
português: Urze
rumantsch: Brutg
русский: Вереск
Scots: Ling
davvisámegiella: Livdnju
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Vrijes
slovenčina: Vres
српски / srpski: Vres
Seeltersk: Riesheede
svenska: Ljung
Türkçe: Süpürge otu
татарча/tatarça: Арчан
українська: Верес звичайний
vepsän kel’: Kanabr'
吴语: 帚石楠
粵語: 帚石南屬
中文: 帚石楠

Calluna vulgaris, common heather, ling, or simply heather,[1] is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae. It is a low-growing evergreen shrub growing to 20 to 50 centimetres (8 to 20 in) tall, or rarely to 1 metre (40 in) and taller,[2] and is found widely in Europe and Asia Minor on acidic soils in open sunny situations and in moderate shade. It is the dominant plant in most heathland and moorland in Europe, and in some bog vegetation and acidic pine and oak woodland. It is tolerant of grazing and regenerates following occasional burning, and is often managed in nature reserves and grouse moors by sheep or cattle grazing, and also by light burning.

Calluna was separated from the closely related genus Erica by Richard Anthony Salisbury, who devised the generic name Calluna probably from the Greek Kallyno (καλλύνω), "beautify, sweep clean", in reference to its traditional use in besoms. The specific epithet vulgaris is Latin for 'common'. Calluna is differentiated from Erica by its corolla and calyx each being in four parts instead of five.

Description

Calluna has small scale-leaves (less than 2–3 mm long) borne in opposite and decussate pairs, whereas those of Erica are generally larger and in whorls of 3–4, sometimes 5.[3] It flowers from July to September.[4]: 231  In wild plants these are normally mauve, but white-flowered plants also occur occasionally. They are terminal in racemes with sepal-like bracts at the base with a superior ovary, the fruit a capsule.[5] Unlike Erica, Calluna sometimes sports double flowers. Calluna is sometimes referred to as Summer (or Autumn) heather to distinguish it from winter or spring flowering species of Erica.
Distribution

Calluna vulgaris is extremely cold-hardy, surviving severe exposure and freezing conditions well below −20 °C (−4 °F).[6] It is native to Europe, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, and the Azores.[7] It has been introduced into many other places worldwide with suitable climates, including North America, Australia, New Zealand and the Falkland Islands.[8]
Cultivation
Calluna flower close-up

Despised until the 19th century for its associations with the most rugged rural poverty, heather's growth in popularity may be paralleled with the vogue for alpine plants. It is a very popular ornamental plant in gardens and for landscaping, in lime-free areas where it will thrive, but it is very hard to grow in less acidic soil.[9]
Cultivars

There are many named cultivars, selected for variation in flower colour and for different foliage colour and growing habits.[10]

Different cultivars have flower colours ranging from white, through pink and a wide range of purples, and including reds. The flowering season with different cultivars extends from late July to November in the northern hemisphere. The flowers may turn brown but still remain on the plants over winter, and this can lead to interesting decorative effects. Cultivars with ornamental foliage are usually selected for reddish and golden leaf colour. A few forms can be silvery grey. Many of the ornamental foliage forms change colour with the onset of winter weather, usually increasing in intensity of colour. Some forms are grown for distinctive young spring foliage.[11]

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

'Alicia' (Garden Girls series)[12]
'Annemarie' [13]
'Beoley Gold'[14]
'County Wicklow'[15]
'Dark Beauty'[16]
'Dark Star'[17]
'Darkness' [18]
'Elsie Purnell'[19]
'Firefly'[20]
'Kerstin' [21]
'Kinlochruel' [22]
'Peter Sparkes'[23]
'Robert Chapman' [24]
'Silver Queen'[25]
'Sister Anne'[26]
'Spring Cream'[27]
'Tib' [28]
'Velvet Fascination'[29]
'Wickwar Flame'[30]
'White Coral'[31]

Uses


Heather is an important food source for various sheep and deer which can graze the tips of the plants when snow covers low-growing vegetation. Willow grouse and red grouse feed on the young shoots and seeds of this plant.[32] Both adult and larva of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis) feed on it, and can cause extensive mortality in some instances. The larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species also feed on the plant, notably the small emperor moth Saturnia pavonia.

Formerly heather was used to dye wool yellow and to tan leather. With malt, heather is an ingredient in gruit, a mixture of flavourings used in the brewing of heather-beer during the Middle Ages before the use of hops. Thomas Pennant wrote in A Tour in Scotland (1769) that on the Scottish island of Islay "ale is frequently made of the young tops of heath, mixing two thirds of that plant with one of malt, sometimes adding hops".[33]

From time immemorial heather has been used for making besoms, a practice recorded in "Buy Broom Buzzems" a song probably written by William Purvis (Blind Willie) (1752–1832) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England.

Heather honey is a highly valued product in moorland and heathland areas, with many beehives being moved there in late summer. Not always as valued as it is today,[34] it was dismissed as mel improbum, "unwholesome honey" by Dioscurides.[35] Heather honey has a characteristic strong taste, and an unusual texture, for it is thixotropic, being a jelly until stirred, when it becomes a syrup like other honey, but then sets again to a jelly. This makes the extraction of the honey from the comb difficult, and it is therefore often sold as comb honey.

White heather is regarded in Scotland as being lucky,[36] a tradition brought from Balmoral to England by Queen Victoria[37] and sprigs of it are often sold as a charm and worked into bridal bouquets.

Heather stalks are used by a small industry in Scotland as a raw material for sentimental jewellery. The stalks are stripped of bark, dyed in bright colours and then compressed with resin.

Calluna vulgaris herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea for treatment of disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract.[38]
Invasive species

The plant was introduced to New Zealand and has become an invasive weed in some areas, notably the Tongariro National Park in the North Island and the Wilderness Reserve (Te Anau) in the South Island, overgrowing native plants. Heather beetles have been released to stop the heather, with preliminary trials successful to date.[39]
Chemistry

The shoots of Calluna vulgaris contain the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid, its 3-O-glucoside, 3-O-galactoside and 3-O-arabinoside.[40]

The nectar of Calluna vulgaris contains a megastigmane, callunene, that is inhibitory at naturally occurring concentrations to a common trypanosome parasite of bumble bees, Crithidia bombi. Koch et al. elucidate the mechanism of activity that results in the loss of the parasite's flagellum, leading to reduced infectivity, because the flagellum is crucial to anchoring in the insect gut.[41]
Cultural references

Heather is seen as iconic of Scotland, where the plant grows widely. When poems like Bonnie Auld Scotland speak of "fragrant hills of purple heather', when the hero of Kidnapped flees through the heather, when heather and Scotland are linked in the same sentence, the heather talked about is Calluna vulgaris.[42]

Purple heather is one of the two national flowers of Norway.
See also

List of Lepidoptera that feed on Calluna
Heath (habitat)
Erica

References

Matveev, Vladimir. "Ling – definition from". Biology-Online.org. Retrieved 2010-01-27.
"In favorable conditions, old plants can grow to the height of a man, and have hidden many a fugitive," remarks Alice M. Coats, British Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Calluna".
Clive Stace, (2010) New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press.
A.R. Clapham, T. G. Tutin, E. F. Warburg (1981). Excursion Flora of the British Isles (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23290-2.
Parnell, P. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press ISBN 978-185918-4783
"Calluna vulgaris". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
Anderberg, Arne. "Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull". Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm.
"Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Calluna vulgaris in the Global Invasive Species Database". Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.
John L. Creech, note in Coats 1992.
"RHS - Find a plant". rhs.org.uk. The Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
"Calluna Subcategories". heatherworld.org. Heather World. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Alicia' (Garden Girls Series)". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Annemarie'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Beoley Gold'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'County Wicklow'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Dark Beauty'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Dark Star'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Darkness'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Elsie Purnell'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Firefly'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Kerstin'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Kinlochruel'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Peter Sparkes'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Robert Chapman'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Silver Queen'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Sister Anne'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Spring Cream'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Tib'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Velvet Fascination'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'Wickwar Flame'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Calluna vulgaris 'White Coral'". RHS. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
Moss R & Parkinson J (1972) The digestion of heather (Culluna vulgaris) by red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) Br.J.Nutr. 27, 285–296
Thomas Pennant, A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides (1772), New Ed. (Birlinn Ltd, 1998) ISBN 1-874744-88-2
"Most people today consider it the best of all honeys, but this was not always so." Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Calluna".
Translated as "noughty honey" by William Turner: noted in Coats (1964) 1992.
"The Folklore of Heather". Tree for Life. Archived from the original on 2008-04-25. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
Coats (1964) 1992.
Vogl, S; Picker, P; Mihaly-Bison, J; Fakhrudin, N; Atanasov, A. G.; Heiss, E. H.; Wawrosch, C; Reznicek, G; Dirsch, V. M.; Saukel, J; Kopp, B (2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.
"Cabweb.org – de beste bron van informatie over cabweb.Deze website is te koop!". Pest.cabweb.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2010-01-27.
Mahbubul, A.F. Jalal; David J. Read; E. Haslam (1982). "Phenolic composition and its seasonal variation in Calluna vulgaris". Phytochemistry. 21 (6): 1397–1401. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(82)80150-7.
Koch, H., Woodward, J., Langat, M., Brown. M.J.F. and Stevenson P.C. (2019). "Flagellum Removal by a Nectar Metabolite Inhibits Infectivity of a Bumblebee Parasite". Current Biology. 29: 3494–3500. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.08.037.
Alexander Wallace (1858). The heather in lore, lyric and lay ...

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