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Calochortus venustus

Calochortus venustus

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Liliales

Familia: Liliaceae
Subfamilia: Calochortoideae
Genus: Calochortus
Species: Calochortus venustus
Name

Calochortus venustus Douglas ex Benth., Trans. Hort. Soc. London, ser. 2, 1: 412 (1834 publ. 1835)
Synonyms

Homotypic
Mariposa venusta (Douglas ex Benth.) Hoover, Leafl. W. Bot. 4: 2 (1944)
Heterotypic
Calochortus venustus var. roseus Reuthe, Gartenflora 35: 116 (1866)
Calochortus venustus var. purpureus Baker, Gard. Chron., n.s., 8: 72 (1877)
Calochortus venustus var. purpurascens S.Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 14: 266 (1879)
Calochortus venustus var. oculatus Tubergen, Wholesale Cat. Flowerroots 1892: 13 (1892)
Calochortus venustus pictus Wallace, Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 18: 14 (1895)
Calochortus venustus var. pictus (Wallace) Purdy & L.H.Bailey in L.H.Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. 1: 221 (1900)
Calochortus venustus var. sanguineus Purdy & L.H.Bailey in L.H.Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. 1: 221 (1900)
Calochortus venustus var. eldorado Purdy, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 3, 2: 141 (1901)
Calochortus venustus var. sulphureus Purdy, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 3, 2: 141 (1901)
Calochortus venustus var. caroli Cockerell, Nature 67: 235 (1903)
Calochortus venustus var. superbus L.H.Bailey & E.Z.Bailey, Hortus: 113 (1930)

References

Douglas, D. 1835. Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, ser. 2 1(5): 412, pl. 15, f. 3.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Calochortus venustus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Mar. 15. Reference page.
Emonocot.org 2015. Calochortus venustus in The Orders and Families of Monocotyledons. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Mar. 15.
Tropicos.org 2015. Calochortus venustus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Mar. 15.
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Calochortus venustus. Published online. Accessed: 15. Mar. 2015.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
Vernacular names

English: Butterfly mariposa lily


Calochortus venustus is a California species of flowering plants in the lily family known by the common name butterfly mariposa lily.[2][3][4]

Distribution

The species is endemic to California ranging from Shasta County to San Diego County, particularly common in the San Gabriel Mountains, the southern part of the Sierra Nevada, and the Coast Ranges between Oakland and Los Angeles. It thrives in the light, sandy soils of a number of habitats, both grasslands and open wooded areas, at 300–2,700 metres (980–8,860 ft) in altitude.[5][6]
Description

Calochortus venustus is a perennial herb producing a branching stem 10 to 60 centimetres tall. There is a basal leaf up to 20 centimetres long which withers by the time the plant blooms.[7]

The inflorescence is a loose cluster of 1 to 6 erect, bell-shaped flowers. The flowers are variable in size and palette; they are often showy and intricately patterned. The petals may be a variety of colours from white to pale pink or purple to bright red or orange, sporting a large dark central blotch and a smaller, paler blotch above. They generally have three curving sepals 2 or 3 centimetres long and three oval-shaped, clawed petals up to 5 centimetres long.[7]

The fruit is an angled capsule 5 or 6 centimetres long.[7]
Red form, on Mount Pinos, San Emigdio Mountains.
References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Bentham, George 1835. Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, ser. 2 1(5): 412, plate 15, figure 3
Tropicos, Calochortus venustus Douglas ex Benth.
Gerritsen, M.E. & Parsons, R. (2007). Calochortus: Mariposa lilies & their relatives: 1-232. Timber press, Inc. Portland, U.S.A..
Calflora taxon report, University of California @ Berkeley: Calochortus venustus (Butterfly Mariposa Lily, butterfly mariposa)
Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
Flora of North America, Calochortus venustus

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Biology Encyclopedia

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